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Black Florida | Black Miami

Trailer for The Black Miami, a documentary based on Black Miami
Dr. Marvin Dunn

Black Florida Organizations

100 Black Men of South Florida, Inc.

904Ward, Jacksonville

African Village, Jacksonville

Afro-Latino Professionals

The Black Archives, History & Research Foundation of
South Florida Inc

Democratic Black Caucus of Florida

Miami Dade Chamber of Commerce

NAACP Florida State Conference

Roots in the City, South Florida, Marvin Dunn
CBS    Redland Rambles

#TheNorthsideCoalitionOfJacksonville on Facebook

Northside Coalition, Ben Frazier, Jacksonville

Related Organizations
Miami has the 6th largest Black population of any metropolitan area in the nation at 1,229,061 which is 21% of the total. Many are not aware that Miami’s Black population is so large. Almost 20% of this population is foreign born.

Miami’s Forgotten Cubans by Alan A. Aja

The Racial Politics of Division: Interethnic Struggles for Legitimacy in Multicultural Miami, Monika Goslin

White Supremacy and Miami Cubans

La Supremacia Blanca y los Cubanos de Miami

Black Florida Media

Black Viewpoint, Jacksonville

Central Florida Advocate

Daytona Times

Florida Courier

Jacksonville Free Press

Miami Times

Orlando Advocate

Orlando Times

Black Politico, Orlando

Pensacola Voice

South Florida Times

Tallahasse Capital Outlook

The Westside Gazette, Fort Lauderdale

Trailer 2 for The Black Miami, a documentary based on Black Miami
Dr. Marvin Dunn

Black Lives Matter Support for Socialism Creates Sharp Divide with Cuban Americans  8/4/2021 Newsweek: "Cubans, Mohl wrote, injected "new life" into the city, but "also brought in the wake of their invasion a host of grave social and economic problems." Those problems included competition for jobs, housing, schools, and government services. "The Cubans are slowly taking over the business of Dade County," complained the Miami Times, the city's Black weekly newspaper, in 1966."

Florida Democrats See Familiar Storm Cloud in Spanish-Language Cuba Coverage  7/22/2021 Newsweek: "The narrative is that we as Democrats are trying to do something to favor the regime, instead of supporting the freedom of the Cuban people, so that really pisses me off," said Democratic strategist Evelyn Pérez-Verdía, an expert on Spanish-language disinformation efforts. "We have the same intentions for the Cuban people, but this narrative BS does not help them."

Florida students required to register political views with the state to promote 'intellectual diversity'  6/23/2021 Alternet: "DeSantis and the bill's sponsor, state Sen. Ray Rodrigues (R-Estero), suggested funding could be cut as punishment for colleges and universities found to be "indoctrinating" students under the measure, which goes into effect July 1."

Florida Democrats shouldn’t be punishing internal dissent | Bill Cotterell  6/17/2021 Talahassee Democrat: "The Palm Beach County Democratic Executive Committee voted overwhelmingly on June 3 to censure four of the county’s school board members for voting to remove the words “white advantage” from a policy statement. The statement said Palm Beach County schools are “committed to dismantling structures rooted in white advantage and transforming our system by hearing and elevating under-represented voices, sharing power, recognizing and eliminating bias and redistributing resources to provide equitable outcomes.”"

Florida Board of Education adopts rule banning ‘critical race theory’ in public schools  6/11/2021 News 4 Jax: "The original rule change proposal, which bars teachers from attempting “ indoctrinate or persuade students to a particular point of view,” did not mention “critical race theory” specifically, but the language was added in an amendment offered by Board member Tom Grady during Thursday’s meeting at FSCJ’s downtown campus in Jacksonville."

'Unacceptable': Only 7 percent of vaccinated Florida residents are Black  5/12/2021 Politico: “Gov. DeSantis and the folks around him need to move heaven and earth to get vaccines to the black community, and as they do this I don’t want to hear them blame their inability to equitably distribute the vaccine to people of color on vaccine hesitancy,” he said."

Miami-Dade’s wealthiest areas are almost fully vaccinated. Black communities are at 31%  4/26/2021 Miami Herald: "Politicians have been quick to blame the disparity on vaccine “hesitancy.” But residents of under-vaccinated communities interviewed by the Herald described a far more complex range of emotional reasoning and logistical hurdles. There was never just one thing that kept someone from getting vaccinated but rather a compounding and often fluid set of circumstances: lack of information from trusted sources, a complicated appointment sign-up system that privileged white-collar workers with more flexible schedules and paid time off, difficult-to-reach vaccination sites that required access to a car, and doctor’s note requirements that disproportionately hurt underinsured Black and brown communities that have less access to doctors."

Miami’s Republican Cuban Americans need to soul search and confront their racism  4/7/2021 Miami Herald 

Residents defend Robert E. Lee High: 'Jesus himself never condemned slavery'  3/25/2021 CNN: "A school board in Jacksonville, Florida, proposed changing the name of its Robert E. Lee High School and held community hearings on the issue. Comments made in support of the name outraged many at the hearings."

The Batistafication of Florida  3/1/2021 Wayne Madsen Report: "The Euro-Cubans, as a voting bloc, must be written off as unobtainable. They are far too rooted in the fascism of their old hero, Batista, and new hero, Trump, to be of political use to a progressive political party. Instead, the Democrats should concentrate their voter registration and get-out-the-vote (GOTV) efforts on the Afro-Cubans, many who arrived in Florida in the El Mariel boatlifts in 1980, as well as working class Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, Haitians, Bahamians, Jamaicans (America has a Vice President of Jamaican descent), Trinidadians, Afro-Colombians and Afro-Venezuelans, and Amerindians from Latin America"

Over 50% of the elected Democratic Party legislators from Miami-Dade are Black  2/18/2021 Miami-Dade Democrats: "Did you know that over 50% of the elected Democratic Party legislators from Miami-Dade are Black? Does anyone know the number for Miami-Dade Republicans?"

‘The last straw’: the US families ending love affair with grocery chain after Capitol riot  2/15/2021 Guardian: "But now the decades-long love affair is over. After a member of Publix’s founding family donated $300,000 to the Donald Trump rally that preceded January’s deadly Capitol riots, Mize is pulling out of what she says has become “an abusive, dysfunctional relationship”, and joining others in a boycott of the Florida-based grocery chain that operates more than 1,200 stores across seven south-eastern states."

Where is Florida Democrats’ Stacey Abrams?  2/10/2021 Orlando Sentinel: "Since Election Day, the Florida Democratic Party has been trying to recover from the disastrous cycle. Their first reaction was to choose a Miami Cuban American, former Miami Mayor Manny Diaz, to lead the party out of the wilderness. Poor performance among Latino voters, especially South Florida’s Cuban Americans, was cited as a key factor in the Democrats’ anemic showing. However, in the wake of Georgia’s success, party leaders should be asking: Where’s our Stacey Abrams?"

Leilani Bruce’s Candela Book Club Explores Afro-Cuban Experiences  2/9/2021 Start Up Cuba TV: "Candela, an eloquent acronym that stands for Cuban-American Narratives and Dialogue for Equity, Liberation and Allyship, found its roots over the summer amidst the tragedies of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and Ahmaud Arbery. Along with the Cuba One Foundation, the Miami Freedom Project began a dialogue about systemic racism in Cuban-American communities. This dialogue expanded to a Whatsapp conversation, virtual meetings, and finally blossomed into the birth of the Candela book club, which is meant to highlight black voices and Afro-Cuban stories."

The Proud Boys and Black Lives Matter clashed in this Florida town — and only BLM faced charges: report  2/3/2021 Alternet: "On January 27, Florida-based activists offered testimony against the DeSantis-supported anti-protest bill. One of them, Arlinda "Tray" Johns, testified, "We just want to know: was it written on the same parchment paper that the slave codes were written on? Because to us in the Black Community, this feels very Jim Crowish.""

Rogue Florida Guv’s Next Pandemic Fiasco: Vaccine Rollout  12/16/2020 Daily Beast: "But, as is the case in most states, none of Florida’s early doses are going to essential workers such as grocer -store staff, transit workers, pharmacy employees, and teachers. What makes Florida’s plan so controversial is that, unlike many other large states, Florida authorities have declined to restrict businesses and schools or to mandate mask-wearing. Those policies have left Floridian essential workers no choice but to work among an especially infective public and risk exposure. Likewise, DeSantis has not detailed a plan to rush vaccines to communities of color that, owing to structural disadvantages going back generations, are uniquely vulnerable to the virus. In Florida as in many other states, there’s significant overlap between essential workers and communities of color, further underscoring the importance of vaccinating these groups as fast as possible."

What Florida Democrats have to learn from Stacey Abrams  11/28/2020 Tampa Bay Times: "Ossoff said the culture war issues don’t ultimately matter to most voters. In Georgia, he said, Democrats have broken through by focusing on local issues. “Solving these problems, improving the quality of daily life for people,” he said. “That’s how we have mobilized this movement.”"

Brevard County: Deputy Jafet Santiago-Miranda Executes Black Teen for Driving Past Him  11/22/2020 Cop Blaster: "Brevard County Deputy Sheriff's Office (BCSO) Deputy Jafet Santiago-Miranda executed two black teenagers for trying to drive past him. The shooting was caught on his dash camera where you can clearly see that the vehicle he shot at was turning right in an effort to drive past him (see video below). The vehicle was obviously going to great lengths to evade the officers without actually hitting them."

Miami-Dade's 'Republican Cuban establishment' regains power in Florida, Washington  11/16/2020 Miami Herald: "The results also may indicate complications for Democratic President-elect Joe Biden, who has said he plans to restore former President Barack Obama’s Cuba policies “in large part” after Trump restricted travel to the island and ended remittances. Though Republicans are in the minority in the U.S. House, the new Cuban American Republican coalition in Miami-Dade County is sure to put up more resistance than one that would have included Mucarsel-Powell and Shalala."

As Trump Gained Latino Support in Florida, Biden’s Campaign Ignored Warnings  11/10/2020 New Yorker 

Florida’s reeling Democrats struggle to reclaim the Sunshine State  11/6/2020 Sun Sentinel: "Tuesday exposed a litany of problems for a divided party: insufficient voter registration; lack of on-the-ground campaigning; a dearth of young, charismatic candidates; neglect of the minority population; an unfocused message to voters; and the inability to counter Trump’s socialist branding — all of this complicated by the paralyzing environment of COVID-19."

Salsa in the streets of Florida's Little Havana: How American-Cubans' fear of 'socialists' Biden and Kamala and backlash against Defund the Police and BLM helped seal crucial Sunshine State win for the Republicans  11/4/2020 Daily Mail: "American-Cubans were seen celebrating in the streets of Miami after Donald Trump secured the state of Florida in the election - with exit polls suggesting 55% of the demographic voted for the president. Miami Democrats blamed their Florida defeat on backlash from Hispanic and Latino voters over the Black Lives Matter movement and their 'extreme' efforts to defund the police, as well as Republican claims that Biden is a 'socialist'."

Florida's Latino voters being bombarded with right-wing misinformation, experts and advocates say  10/20/2020 ABC 

Voter intimidation looms as a concern. Here’s how South Florida will fight it.  10/17/2020 Sun Sentinel: "The Center for Public Integrity reported that supporters of President Trump in Virginia temporarily blocked an entrance to an early voting site, forcing officials to offer voters escorts to cast ballots. In Minnesota, a private security company is recruiting former military members to guard polling places, alarming election officials with the prospect of unofficial armed guards who could intimidate or harass voters. And Michigan, wanting to curb intimidation, won’t let people openly carry guns near polling sites."

Armed Militias And Poll Watchers: Know The Laws In Florida  10/11/2020 Patch: "Second, call Election Protection at 866-OUR-VOTE (866-687-8683) to report what you see. Assistance in also available in Spanish at 888-VE-Y-VOTA (888- 839-8682), in Arabic at 844-YALLA-US (844-915-5187), and Asian languages at 888-API-VOTE (1-888-174-8683). A video call number for American Sign Language is available at 301-818-VOTE (301-818-8683)."

Donations From Michael Jordan, LeBron James To Help Felons Vote  10/6/2020 MSN 

At least one person arrested during St. Augustine protests outside Flagler College  10/4/2020 MSN: "The altercation happened as protesters and counter-protesters gathered in front of Flagler College on King Street. Both gatherings centered around Mark Bailey, a member of the Flagler Board of Trustees. Protesters led by the Reverend Ron Rawls accuse Bailey of using his wealth and influence to "hinder social justice progress in St. Augustine by attempting to sway a government ruling on removing and relocating the Confederate monument," according to a Facebook post."

Proud Boys try to assimilate into Florida GOP as Trump denies knowing extremist group  10/2/2020 Miami Herald 

John Legend Helps Returning Citizens Restore Their Voting Rights  9/25/2020 Now This: "John Legend is helping restore voting rights for thousands of Floridians with felony convictions by paying off their outstanding court fines and fees."

Republican Senator Proposes Bill That Would Make It Illegal to Count Votes  9/24/2020 Slate: "On Thursday, Florida Sen. Rick Scott proposed a bill that would change election laws with less than six weeks to go until November’s election, causing complete mayhem and ensuring that untold numbers of otherwise valid votes would not be counted. Scott’s proposal is simple and entirely unworkable. His Help America Vote Act of 2020 would require that mail-in ballots be counted within 24 hours of when voting closes on Election Day."

Review shows objectionable content routinely appeared in columns in el Nuevo Herald insert  9/20/2020 Miami Herald: "The columnist wrote that Michelle Obama reminds him of a “black monster” in Dante’s Inferno. Other times, he wrote that Islam is “filth,” Native Americans “primitive” and Africa the “ass of the world.” On another occasion still, he called George Floyd “ugly,” a “common criminal” and the protests over his death at the hands of police “racial whoremongering.” And then there’s the time that he wrote, in all apparent seriousness, that Black Lives Matter protesters should summarily be put to death."

Trump thanked 'great people' shown in Twitter video in which a man chants 'white power'  6/28/2020 CNN 

WHEN LIBERTY BURNS  6/19/2020 Miami Film Festival: "On December 17, 1979, Arthur McDuffie failed to stop for a traffic light, and police officers gave chase. After realizing he could not escape, McDuffie surrendered. He was beaten until he lost consciousness, ultimately causing his death. The shocking acquittal of the offending officers charged in the murder sparked a civil disturbance in Miami’s urban core. The “McDuffie Riots” that followed in May 1980 caused the deaths of 18 people, millions of dollars in destruction, and became a symbol of the city’s struggle to contend with race relations and its sordid history during the Jim Crow era. The documentary engages family members and friends of Arthur McDuffie, retired police officers, eye witnesses, historians and contemporary community activists in interviews and it chronicles McDuffie’s life and his rich relationships with his family and his community. It traces, with brilliant insight, the dynamics of race relations in the City as it manages increasingly diverse ethnic populations, growth and change. And yet, 40 years later, this seminal Miami reckoning is in danger of disappearing from public consciousness – something that Alexis’ timely and important film seeks to redress."

Hallan muerta a activista de marchas contra el racismo en Florida  6/17/2020 Ruda: "La policía de Tallahassee informó del arresto de un sospechoso, Aaron Glee Jr., de 49 años. Éste ya había sido detenido en mayo pasado acusado de agresión agravada a una mujer y liberado bajo una fianza de 2 mil 500 dólares. En varios mensajes, la joven dijo que fue asaltada, que llamó a la Policía y que escapó. Salau se unió a las marchas de Black Lives Matter, en las que recitaba los nombres de hombres afroamericanos que murieron a manos de la policía, entre ellos George Floyd, según se ve en varios videos."

Marco Rubio called them ‘extremists.’ They’re really Miami rappers. They want a retraction.  6/10/2020 Miami Herald: "When cops arrested Marco Antonio Lopez on allegations that he vandalized patrol cars during a protest in downtown Miami, the arrest report noted he was part of a group known as the “Southern Slaves,” which “actively recruits people to violently protest the government.” That drew the attention of U.S. Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, who tweeted the arrest was evidence of “extremist groups” organizing to cause mayhem at protests over the death of George Floyd and police brutality. But the Southern Slaves aren’t an extremist group. And they are not monitored by the FBI or listed by hate-group trackers like the Anti-Defamation League or the Southern Poverty Law Center. They’re a group of aspiring hip-hop musicians from Miami’s Flagami neighborhood, buddies uploading their music online, doing shows at open-mic nights and spreading a message of what they consider government overreach. “We’re not terrorists. We love America. What we don’t love is systematic oppression and police brutality,” said Alonzo Martinez, 23, whose stage name is “Zo The Atlantean.”"

Florida Ousts Top COVID-19 Data Scientist  5/19/2020 NPR: "In a statement later to The Miami Herald, DeSantis' communications director, Helen Aguirre Ferré, said, "Rebekah Jones exhibited a repeated course of insubordination during her time with the department, including her unilateral decisions to modify the Department's COVID-19 dashboard without input or approval from the epidemiological team or her supervisors. "The blatant disrespect for the professionals who were working around the clock to provide the important information for the COVID-19 website was harmful to the team. Accuracy and transparency are always indispensable, especially during an unprecedented public health emergency such as COVID-19. Having someone disruptive cannot be tolerated during this public pandemic, which led the department to determine that it was best to terminate her employment.""

State senator sounds the alarm about Florida’s concealment of COVID-19 death statistics  5/11/2020 Alternet: “Recently, it was reported that the death count tallied by the Medical Examiners Commission was at one point 10% higher than the number released by the Florida Department of Health,” Berman explains. “Shortly after this discrepancy came to light, state officials cited privacy concerns to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, the agency providing support to the Medical Examiners Commission, and blocked the report from further release.” Berman adds, however, that a list from medical examiners “never contained the names of COVID-19 victims” but rather, “contained demographics, cause of death, and case summaries — far from private information.”

There could be 22 emerging COVID-19 hotspots in small cities or rural areas in eight states that are lifting lockdown restrictions, analysis of social media coronavirus posts reveals  4/29/2020 Daily Mail: "There could be up to 22 emerging coronavirus hotspots in small cities and rural counties across eight US states that are lifting lockdown restrictions, data researchers have found. An analysis conducted by data firm Dataminr used artificial intelligence to examine social media posts related to coronavirus and predicts the smaller areas where infections are set to increase. The firm identified the areas based on clusters of public social media posts that directly referenced, among other things, firsthand accounts of symptoms, relatives who have been infected and testing supply shortages."

CDC director: Agency sent guidance to Florida weeks before gov ordered some residents to stay at home  4/13/2020 The Hill: "If true, Redfield's remarks would mean that the state had received advice from federal officials on necessary steps to prevent the spread of coronavirus weeks before DeSantis publicly alluded to a lack of guidance from the White House coronavirus task force while facing criticism for his decisions not to shutter state beaches or issue a statewide stay-at-home order."

‘Officials in Florida city say they face ‘unimaginable’ potential death from COVID-19: ‘Recipe for disaster’  4/8/2020 Alternet: "Officials in the Florida city of Hialeah are warning that they are uniquely vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic and face the possibility of “unimaginable” death from the disease. In interviews with The Daily Beast, the officials explained how their large population of senior citizens is at grave risk if Hialeah erupts as a major COVID-19 hotspot."

DeSantis order relaxes rules for churches, freeing megachurch pastor to resume services  4/2/2020 Fox: "The pastor canceled his upcoming in-person services after being arrested for hosting hundreds inside his megachurch despite a Hillsborough County "safer at home" social distancing order, banning gatherings of 10 or more to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus. But Governor Ron DeSantis issued his own, statewide order Wednesday, which says the rules will be different for places of worship. Under his new order, church services are considered "essential" and there is no clear indication social distancing rules must be followed. This new executive order is giving leaders at the local level whiplash."

The best politician in America today is a city commissioner who chewed out the worst mayor in Florida  3/22/2020 Alternet: "The Mayor broke all kinds of protocol in this meeting trying to prevent Hardy from speaking, of which he skillfully called her out on. The Mayor then broke the rules to recess the meeting, walk away, and dismissively tell him “he was done”. That’s when all hell broke lose.Hardy accused city manager Michael Bornstein of “turning off people’s lights during a global health pandemic”. He said Mayor Triolo was more concerned with her relationship with Bornstein and was complicit because she refused to call an emergency meeting on measures the city could take."

Videos show Miami Beach arrests of black spring breakers slammed as racist by NAACP  3/17/2020 NBC: "The Miami-Dade chapter of the NAACP is calling for the removal of the Miami Beach police chief and city manager in response to videos showing police interactions with black spring breakers last week. In one of the viral videos, a Miami Beach police officer appears to grab a young woman by the throat after she falls onto the street following a collision with an officer. That video was uploaded to social media and has been viewed more than 390,000 times."

STACEY ABRAMS DISCUSSES HOW TO HELP YOUNG FLORIDIANS VOTE AT MIAMI DADE COLLEGE  2/5/2020 Florida Dems: "“In 2018, almost 60,000 people voted at the 12 college campus polling locations around Florida — over half of those that voted on campus were under the age of 30. Your vote will not just determine your future, but the future of America. When Florida’s young people vote, Florida wins.”"

Cuando los bebés negros eran usados como cebo para cazar cocodrilos en Florida  11/18/2019 Strambotic 

Haitian, Jamaican or American ... If you’re black in Miami, odds are you’re struggling  2/25/2019 Miami Herald: "A new study sheds light on the yawning gap in wealth in the Miami area between white households and households of color. Among non-white groups, it is Miami-area households identifying as black that continue to suffer most, according to the authors of the study, “The Color of Wealth in Miami.”"

11-year-old arrested after refusing to stand for Pledge of Allegiance  2/17/2019 NY Post: "The classroom kerfuffle happened when a substitute teacher, Ana Alvarez, ordered the boy to stand for the Pledge of Allegiance. When he told her he believed the flag was racist and the anthem was offensive, Alvarez asked him “why if it was so bad here he did not go to another place to live,” the teacher said in a statement to the school district. The teacher said he replied, “they brought me here.” Alvarez then told him, “Well you can always go back, because I came here from Cuba and the day I feel I’m not welcome here anymore I would find another place to live.”"

Prosecutors Meet With Florida Teens Over Possible Hate Crime  1/26/2019 Atlanta Black Star: "Bartlett is charged so far with illegally carrying a concealed weapon, which is a felony. “We know what we saw in the video, but it goes beyond that,” said Don Horn, chief assistant Miami-Dade County state attorney. “We’re going to do everything we can to see that justice is done in this case.”

How was Miami’s Overtown neighborhood chosen as the place to expand I-95?  1/15/2019 The New tropic: "“By 1961, Overtown families began receiving surprise letters telling them they were expected to uproot and relocate from their homes within six to eight weeks,” Fields said in an email. “No mention was made of any appeal process, and ‘the rest is history.’” "

Mockery of Justice: Criminal justice in Jacksonville is tainted by racism and civil rights violations  12/26/2018 Folio: "The self-proclaimed Bold New City of the South is neither bold nor new when it comes to criminal justice. Racism and civil rights violations pervade Jacksonville, as they have in the past. I focus now on several abuses that are systemic and continuing. Elected officials bear the blame for doing nothing about racist arrest policies and abuses of the rights of defendants and the public."

Black Florida State Representative Proposes Law to Prevent the Erasure of Confederate Monuments  12/22/2018 Atlanta Black Star: "The Florida Panhandle’s first Black representative since the Civil War just proposed a bill that would make it a crime to remove Confederate memorials, names and symbols in the state, not to mention that any intentional damaging of said memorials would be treated as a third-degree felony. Rep. Mike Hill (R-Pensacola) insists Gen. Robert E. Lee was more than just “some racist” and lauded him as “a gentleman, a Christian, and a man of great valor who” deserved to be revered, as should all Confederate leaders, the Broward Palm Beach New Times reported."

Video: Forget what you think you know about Overtown  12/17/2018 The New tropic: "Once considered “The Harlem of the South,” it was the gathering place for musicians such as Duke Ellington, Sammy Davis Jr. and Billie Holiday. But when the construction of I-95 divided the neighborhood into quadrants in the 1960s, Overtown’s economic stability collapsed, and so did its claim to fame as the entertainment capital of the South."

Five Signs the Florida Democratic Party Still Doesn't Get It  12/16/2018 Miami New Times: "Andrew Gillum was a strong candidate for governor. Ron DeSantis and Rick Scott were grotesque, cretinous candidates and seemingly awful human beings. Everything looked so easy. So of course the Florida Democrats blew it. They're the Florida Democrats! They're a group of party apparatchiks and generally privileged white people who treat political representation like a club and a hobby instead of seeing politics as the dire, important, often-life-altering issue it is. The party is staffed by people who reward those who stress loyalty and tradition over good ideas."

I dig through archives to unearth hidden stories from African-American history  12/4/2018 The Conversation: "Many years ago, as a graduate student searching in the archives of Spanish Florida, I discovered the first “underground railroad” of enslaved Africans escaping from Protestant Carolina to find religious sanctuary in Catholic Florida. In 1738, these runaways formed Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the first free black settlement in what became the U.S. The excitement of that discovery encouraged me to keep digging. After doing additional research in Spain, I followed the trail of the Mose villagers to Cuba, where they had emigrated when Great Britain acquired Florida. I found many of them in 18th-century church records in Havana, Matanzas, Regla, Guanabacoa and San Miguel del Padrón."

Gov. Rick Scott's Wildly Biased Voting Rights Board: Here's How He Reportedly Boosted Republicans and Disfavored Black Voters  10/25/2018 Alternet: "According to the Post's findings, Scott has restored the voting rights of twice as many whites as blacks, even though whites and blacks were released from state prisons at roughly the same rate. Furthermore, Scott re-enfranchised a higher percentage of Republicans, and a lower percentage of Democrats, than any governor since 1971."

Miami Republican chairman reportedly planned Pelosi protest with Proud Boys  10/20/2018 Think Progress: "Now another Republican has been connected to the Proud Boys. After an angry mob confronted and cursed at House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) during a campaign event for Donna Shalala (D-FL) in Coral Gables on Wednesday, the Washington Post reported the Florida protest “appears to have been organized by Nelson Diaz, the chairman of the Republican Party in Miami-Dade County.”"

Miami GOP Chairman just caught leading Proud Boys in attack on Democratic campaign office  10/19/2018 The Stern Fact: "Chairman Diaz even told me that he never heard of the Proud Boys, even though the Miami New Times caught local GOP Congressman Mario Diaz-Balart posting a photo of himself with one candidate of the group’s members just two months ago. But the video doesn’t lie, and it depicts Diaz only a few feet away from Miami Proud Boys leader Enrique Tarrio when he yelled: “Open up! It’s some Proud Boys in here.”"

Third police officer sentenced to prison for framing black males  10/19/2018 Nation of Change: "After pleading guilty to framing innocent black men and punching a handcuffed suspect in the face, a third Florida police officer was sentenced Thursday to 27 months in prison for conspiracy to deprive a person of his civil rights and deprivation of civil rights under color of law. Two other officers have been sentenced to one year in federal prison, while their former police chief awaits sentencing next month."

Miami GOP Chairman Nelson Diaz leading Proud Boys hate group in attack on Democratic campaign office  10/19/2018 YouTube: "The Republican Party Miami-Dade's County Chairman led an angry mob of partisans with the local leader of national hate group the Proud Boys in an attack on a Democratic campaign office the week."

Why Young Men of Color Are Joining White-Supremacist Groups  9/4/2018 Daily Beast: "Tarrio, who identifies as Afro-Cuban, is president of the Miami chapter of the Proud Boys, who call themselves “Western chauvinists,” and “regularly spout white-nationalist memes and maintain affiliations with known extremists,” according to the Southern Poverty Law Center."

Here Are 5 of the Most Disturbing Facts About Florida Republican Gubernatorial Candidate Ron DeSantis  8/30/2018 Alternet: "The Florida gubernatorial race could become a referendum on Sanders’ ideas versus Trump’s ideas, and DeSantis is way beyond conservative—he is extreme."

After surprise primary victory, can Andrew Gillum win the Florida governor's race?  8/30/2018 NBC: "But the state remains divided stubbornly 50-50, which means Democrats need to both energize their base and win over swing voters, said Steve Schale, a Florida Democratic strategist who backed Graham. “It's still a state that is very evenly balanced,” said Schale — who, like Graham, quickly got behind Gillum. “Democrats that think Andrew's not going to be able to connect with suburban white women, and typical swing voters aren't paying attention to what's happening around the country.”"

Black lawmaker says Miami Democrats have ‘lynched’ him in primary  8/16/2018 Miami Herald: "Hardemon, in interviews with the Miami Herald, said his party doesn’t like black people — “especially black men” — and claimed the chairman of the Miami-Dade Democrats recruited a Haitian-American candidate to boot him from office. This week, Hardemon went one step further, lobbing a racial accusation during a meeting of Democratic leaders in Doral. “It’s surprising to be lynched from the Democratic Party,” Hardemon said from a stage, standing next to Chairman Juan Cuba."

Miami Congressman Diaz-Balart Posts Photo With Alt-Right "Proud Boy"  8/10/2018 Miami New Times: "The Proud Boy who met with Diaz-Balart describes himself online as a military veteran and National Rifle Association "certified pistol instructor." He's repeatedly taken photographs with Miami-Dade County Republican Party members and appears to be involved with Carla Spalding's campaign for Florida's 23rd Congressional District, a seat currently occupied by Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Spalding has been endorsed by Roger Stone and has appeared on InfoWars, so it's perhaps not surprising that her campaign seems to include a Proud Boy, as well."

As Algae Bloom Grew, Miami Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart Took $27,200 From Big Sugar  8/8/2018 Miami New Times: "From the beginning of June until early July, an algae bloom in Lake Okeechobee grew and grew until it covered 90 percent of the lake's surface. Then the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released water from the lake, letting the algae migrate to both coasts of Florida. The nasty, toxic sludge — caused in significant part by polluted runoff from sugar farms — has killed wildlife, lowered property values, and wrecked tourism. It's also made campaign contributions from the sugar giants a major political liability."

Cops, courts in Miami-Dade harsher on blacks. New study details stark racial disparities.  7/19/2018 Miami Herald: "No group in Miami-Dade County gets treated more harshly in the criminal justice system than blacks, according to a joint study released Thursday by the American Civil Liberties Union and University of Miami. Researchers, who analyzed five years of data between 2010 and 2015, found stark differences across the board."

Police chief, officers in Florida town accused of pinning crimes on blacks to help stats  7/12/2018 Miami Herald: ""If they have burglaries that are open cases that are not solved yet, if you see anybody black walking through our streets and they have somewhat of a record, arrest them so we can pin them for all the burglaries," one cop, Anthony De La Torre, said in an internal probe ordered in 2014."

A conversation about racism in Miami should include all groups – not just Cubans  6/2/2018 Miami Herald: "In my life — and in 38 years as a journalist covering every topic in the book in South Florida — I've witnessed racist and prejudiced words and acts from members of every group in our community. Yet the flurry of outrage and calls for conversation seem to happen only when the offender is Cuban or Cuban-American." [Cuban privilege!]

Afro-Latinos Say Miami Blackface Play Is Part Of Bigger Problem With Racism In Latino Communities  5/29/2018 WLRN: "And supporters of the play kept telling her this was tradition, but Afro-Latinos say this is bigger than a play. For them, it's part of larger problem in Latino communities, where blackness is demonized and deemed inferior through art, entertainment and everyday conversations."

This Miami parody features an actress in blackface and the audience 'loves it'  5/19/2018 Miami Herald: "A popular Spanish-language theater near Miami’s Little Havana neighborhood has been entertaining its audiences for months with a parody that would spur outrage in many other cities. One of the leading actors in the play performs in blackface. The response from most of this audience: applause and laughter. “It has been a hit and no one has complained ... on the contrary, she is one of the favorites," said Marisol Correa, who oversees the venue where the play is showing. “The character is typical of the Cuban theater, the negrito cubano, but the person is never discriminated.”"

Publix bankrolling the campaign of Florida GOP Adam Putnam  5/17/2018 Ybor City Stogie: "Latinos who shop at Publix - Check this out… ----- Its heirs and past and present leaders are bankrolling the campaign of Agriculture Commissioner Adam Putnam at unprecedented levels. ----- Putnam is a vocal supporter of Trump’s vitriolic anti-immigrant policies, and while he served in Congress before Trump existed, he cast anti-minority votes. ----- His voting record clearly shows he’s all about suppressing the vote of minorities who are U.S. citizens."

Justice for Keegan Von Roberts  3/5/2018 AVAAZ: Petition with a good explanation - "The state of Florida is attempting to justify his murder with this law all due to a small part of his car being parked on the sidewalk. His murderer lives all the way across the street. We wont let the state brush this under the rug all because they don't have time or do not want to deal with it. If your mindset is where all of ours is after reading this we ask that you please sign this petition and share as we all just want "JUSTICE FOR KEEGAN"."

Estate of Keegan Roberts v. Michael Centanni Evidence Locker  3/5/2018 John M Philips Esq: Contains numerous call recordings and statements by Keegan Von Roberts' murderer, the white supremacist Centanni.

Manolín: "Vivimos en EE.UU. y le estamos muy agradecidos pero no hay por qué callar"  2/16/2018 Cibercuba: "Manolín, El médico de la salsa, ha publicado un texto en su perfil de Facebook a propósito del tiroteo en una escuela secundaria de Broward, el pasado 14 de febrero, en el que murieron 17 personas y otras 15 resultaron heridas. Más que aludir directamente a la tragedia, el músico cubano ha ido a la que considera la causa principal, el gran problema de origen: la venta de armas."

Miami Latinos Have Avoided Electing African American County Mayors, But That Could Finally Change  1/29/2018 Remezcla: "In 1983, Puerto Rican Miami Mayor Maurice Ferrer won his sixth consecutive two-year term against Cuban-born Xavier Suarez after a campaign that began to uncover the growing tensions between Miami’s Cuban majority and the Black minority. Many Black voters campaigned for Ferrer, resentful of the “Cuban takeover” of the city. Suarez’s supporters, in turn, were found holding signs that simply urged, “Cubans, vote Cuban.” As Luke wrote, only one Black county mayoral candidate has gotten a close chance at the seat: Arthur Teele, Jr. in 1995. Teele won a majority of the Black vote, but barely gained any Latino neighborhoods, while his opponent, Cuban born Alex Penelas, garnered 90 percent of the Latino vote come election day."

TRES VIUDAS EN UN CRUCERO llega a la Sala Catarsis de Miami  1/25/2018 YouTube: "Tres viudas que viven que en el mismo Condominio en Hialeah, deciden tomar un crucero por el Caribe. Lo que nadie imagina, es lo que les ocurre mientras lo planeaban, y después que regresan del viaje. En esta comedia le aseguramos una risa continua y una diversion constante . Más info en" [Con una negrita en blackface…]

Hispanic Voters Will Never Elect a Black Miami-Dade County Mayor  1/22/2018 Miami New Times: "When he was seeking reelection in 2012, Gimenez showed up at every rally and black church to drum up endorsements. Though the black vote can push a candidate over the top in a countywide election, we somehow always select the best Cuban candidate. And once the Cuban candidate wins, he tosses the African-American community into the garbage. All we get in return is a giant F-you."

Black Floridians' Burden: the Cuban Invasiontop

In 1959, "white" Cubans started emigrating to Miami on a massive scale and pushed aside the then thriving Black American and Bahamian communities, who many still remember had built Miami. Black jobs and neighborhoods were taken over by the federally financed refugees while Blacks were relegated to Overtown, Liberty City, and Opa-Locka, among others.  Until then Overtown in particular had a rich history and was called the Harlem of the South, it is no longer, though that is likely due to the Feds passing I-95 through there. Overall, there should be a good reparations case against the Federal Government for this ethnic cleansing that started only 60 years ago.

Cubans coming to Miami continued to be mostly of Ibero-Spanish origin until Mariel in 1980 and the balseros who followed. Even then, many Black Cubans blended in with Black Americans or moved to New Jersey and New York, rejected by their white Cuban counterparts. This was recently referenced in the Academy Award winning film, Moonlight: “Lotta black folks in Cuba but you wouldn’t know it from being here [in Miami].” (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). This same article references a 2016 book, Miami’s Forgotten Cubans  by Alan A. Aja, which is one of the few studies of AfroCubans in Miami.

From the start of the Cuban invasion, the two wealthiest and most important Cuban American families, the Bacardis and the Fanjuls, who own Domino Sugar, funded terrorist groups such as Alpha 66 that attacked Cuba repeatedly and killed over 3,000 civilians. They form the exiled plantocracy, complete with their stable of politicians: the Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio and their cohorts.

Throughout this process, many Black Americans were killed every year by Florida police, whose officers were increasingly Cuban Americans or Latinos.

In 1990, the Miami City Commission rescinded a proclamation welcoming Nelson Mandela to the city during his tour of the U.S. after his release from prison in South Africa. The city's Cuban-American mayor and four other Cuban-American mayors from the area publicly criticized Mandela for not denouncing human rights violations in Cuba. Of course they ignored the fact that Mandela was out of jail because of the Cuban victory in Southern Africa. The response from Black Miami, then 21% of Miami's 359,000 inhabitants, was swift: they declared a national boycott that cost Miami anywhere from $40 million to $3 billion in lost revenue and forced a settlement 3 years later.

As more and more balseros or raft people poured in from Cuba throughout the 90's, US intel agencies took notice that many were Black and sent out memos to their Cuban American client organizations to start integrating Black Cubans in a classic imperial divide and conquer approach. CIA agent Jose Basulto took the lead and trained his people in nonviolent protests at the Martin Luther King Institute (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Having devastated Black Miami, the exiled Cuban plantocracy appropriated US Civil Rights icons in their struggle to regain influence over the now largely Black homeland. The exiles are using race as their main wedge issue to try and destabilize Cuba, and we have been tracking this since at least 2001.

These facts are not in dispute. The real question is why this whole process, especially the ethnic cleansing of Miami, has been so ignored, both in Cuba and the US, and what can be done about that. This ignoring has already caused problems by making the Cuban rap and hip-hop community vulnerable to persuasion and money from Miami, USAID, and NED, leading to needles state repression.

-- Andy Petit

The White Man's Burden (1899)
Rudyard Kipling

Take up the White Man's burden,
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile,
to serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

La carga de los floridanos negros: la invasión cubanatop

En 1959, muchos cubanos "blancos" comenzaron a emigrar a Miami y dejaron de lado a las entonces prósperas comunidades afroamericanas y bahameñas, que se acuerdan bien como habían construido a Miami. Los negros y sus barrios fueron asumidos por los refugiados financiados por el gobierno federal, mientras que los negros fueron relegados a Overtown, Liberty City y Opa-Locka, entre otros. Overtown en particular tiene una historia rica y fue llamado el Harlem del Sur, pero no lo es ahora, aunque esto es mas la culpa del gobierno federal directamente, que paso la autopista I-95 en medio del barrio.  Pero en general, debe haber un buen caso de reparaciones con el gobierno federal por esta limpieza étnica que comenzó hace solo 60 años.

Los cubanos que vinieron a Miami siguieron siendo en gran parte de origen ibero-español hasta la onda de Mariel en 1980 y los balseros que siguieron. Incluso entonces, muchos cubanos negros se mezclaron con negros americanos o se mudaron a Nueva Jersey y Nueva York, rechazados por sus homólogos cubanos blancos. Esto fue recientemente mencionado en la película ganadora del Premio de la Academia, Moonlight: "Mucha gente negra en Cuba, pero no lo sabrías por estar aquí [en Miami]." (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). Este mismo artículo hace referencia a un libro de 2016, Miami's Forgotten Cubans de Alan A. Aja, que es uno de los pocos estudios de los AfroCubanos en Miami.

Desde el comienzo de la invasión cubana, las dos familias cubano-americanas más ricas e importantes, los Bacardis y los Fanjuls, propietarios de Domino Sugar, financiaron grupos terroristas como Alpha 66 que atacaron a Cuba y mataron a más de 3.000 civiles. Ellos forman la plantocracia en el exilio, con su conjunto de políticos: los Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio y sus cohortes.

A lo largo de este proceso, muchos estadounidenses negros fueron asesinados cada año por la policía de la Florida, cuyos oficiales eran cada vez más cubano-americanos o latinos.

En 1990, la Comisión de la Ciudad de Miami rescindió una proclama dando la bienvenida a Nelson Mandela a la ciudad durante su gira por los Estados Unidos después de su liberación de la prisión en Sudáfrica. El alcalde cubano-americano de Miami y otros cuatro alcaldes cubano-americanos de la zona criticaron públicamente a Mandela por no denunciar las violaciones de los derechos humanos en Cuba. Por supuesto, ignoraron el hecho de que Mandela estaba fuera de la cárcel debido a la victoria cubana en el sur de África. La respuesta de Black Miami, entonces el 21% de los 359.000 habitantes de Miami, fue rápida: declararon un boicot nacional que costó a Miami de $40 millones a $3 mil milliones en ingresos perdidos y obligó a un acuerdo 3 años después.

A medida que más y más balseros llegaban de Cuba a lo largo de los años 90, las agencias de inteligencia estadounidenses advirtieron que muchos eran negros y enviaron memorandos a sus organizaciones clientelares cubanas para comenzar a integrar a los cubanos negros en una clásica división imperial. El agente de la CIA, José Basulto, tomó la iniciativa y entrenó a su gente en protestas no violentas en el Instituto Martin Luther King (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Después de haber devastado a Black Miami, la plantocracia cubana exiliada se apropió de los iconos de los Derechos Civiles de los Estados Unidos en su lucha por recuperar la influencia sobre su patria hoy en gran parte negra. Los exiliados están utilizando la raza como su principal problema para tratar de desestabilizar a Cuba, y hemos estado rastreando esto desde al menos 2001.

Estos hechos no están en disputa. La verdadera pregunta es por qué todo este proceso ha sido tan ignorado, tanto en Cuba como en los Estados Unidos, y qué se puede hacer al respecto. Esta ignorancia intencional ya ha causado problemas al hacer que la comunidad de rap y hip-hop cubana sea vulnerable a la persuasión y el dinero de Miami, USAID y NED, lo que lleva a una represión estatal innecesaria.

-- Andy Petit

Excerpt from Back to the Future: African-Americans and Cuba in the Time(s) of Race  12/2/2011 top
Contributions in Black Studies: published in 1994, by Lisa Brock


While there has been substantial scholarship on the U.S. domination of Cuba, projects devoted to uncovering the historical connections between African-Americans and Cuba have been minimal. Aside from Willard Gatewood's several volumes, Johnnetta Cole's short 1977 article on African-American solidarity with Cuba, and Rosemari Mealy's 1992 collection of testimonials on Fidel and Malcolm, there is little else.  In fact, given African-American sentiments concerning the Cuban-American community today, it is difficult for one to believe that any feelings of closeness ever existed.

African-Americans under age forty - like their peers - have come to know Cubans through the opinions and activities of Cuban emigres in Miami. Enraged at the revolution, the latter have been promoted and given political clout by successive U.S. administrations and the national media. Unlike previous Cuban-American populations, Cubans in Florida are largely White and drawn from Cuba's pre-revolutionary elite. Implicated in police brutality and overtly racist politics, they have attained dispropor- tionate power in Florida. 4 Police shootings have incited Blacks in Miami to riot in the section known as Liberty City. The differential treatment of Haitian and Cuban emigres has prompted persistent demonstrations. Haitians, when not turned back, are held for months in detention camps while Cubans often attain political asylum within twenty- four hours.

Tensions peaked in 1990 when Miami mayor Xavier Suarez, a Cuban- American, became the only United States official to refuse to greet African National Congress head Nelson Mandela-whose organization was known for its ties to Cuba- when he visited that city. Mandela had been invited to attend the national convention of the American Federation of State and Municipal Employees, a trade union long active in the anti-apartheid struggle. Mayor Suarez' position so angered the trade unionists and Black residents of Miami that they called for a convention boycott of Miami. The boycott was effectively sustained for three years and called off only when the city's politicians negotiated a deal with prominent Blacks for greater Black empowerment. In addition, the rightist Cuban American National Foundation, through its ties to the Heritage Foundation, became known for its support of right-wing contra wars in southern Africa.

Many African-Americans have only known Cuba through such experiences, creating for them a somewhat muddled assumption that all Cubans are fascist and racist. The 1989 publication of Carlos Moore's Castro, the Blacks and Africa, added fuel to this fire by attacking Fidel Castro and the Cuban revolution as consciously racist. A few prominent African-Americans such as Maya Angelou and St. Clair Drake endorsed the book, which boosted readership in the Black community. Even though Moore's book was of poor scholarship and based more on hearsay than in-depth analysis, to it kneaded an already ethnically and ideologically charged situation. But more importantly, the work has served to whittle away at some of the support base of the Cuban revolution in the Black community. Paradoxically, it has served to relocate some African-Americans to the counter-revolutionary side of the U.S. government on the one hand, and on the other, bolstered the Congressional Black Caucus in its call for an end to the blockade. The CBC has argued that only an end to the United States blockade can better the lives of Black Cubans.


Links/Enlaces top


Police Killings in Florida

The 1923 Rosewood Massacre

South Florida Black Journalists Association

Visit Florida  Where to Learn About Florida's Black History

History of Florida/Modern Florida, 1900-1945, WikiBooks


Dr Marvin Dunn, historian, organizer

Black History In Early Miami

History of Overtown

Liberty Square Rising

Race riots in Miami - Wikipedia

Look Back at Miami’s Vibrant African American and Caribbean Heritage, Miami and Beaches
Black Archives, Miami

The Bahamian Influence on the South Florida Shotgun House, Kisla Foundation
"If the family represents the soul of the community, then the house is the soul's vessel. In West African culture, religious rituals made clear the belief that the traditional clay artifact – the home – contained the soul of the ancestors. In many ways, the simple nature of the shotgun houses – long, straight and narrow – found in Miami and other southern cities, affirms the lives of intimacy that the Bahamian builders' West African ancestors led. The structure of the shotgun house is illustrative of cultures where concepts of personal space suggest a closeness among family members that was uncommon in Western societies."

Miami, 1959 - 1980, USC

Miami History, Soul of America

"The federal government designated Miami to be the point of embarkation and assistance for Cuban immigrants. To use a chess metaphor it was a “Queen” in the Cold War Cuba Policy directed at Russia. Towards America’s Cold War objective, the U.S. government awarded 50 times the amount of business loans and grants to immigrant Cuban businesspersons than to black Miamians in the 1960s. The federal government also persuaded Miami, Dade County and Florida officials to award public service jobs and more home loans to Cuban immigrants. As a result, U.S. government leaders could parade successful Cuban immigrants to Latin America as an example that Democratic-Capitalism works better than Communist-Dictatorship.

Anglo-Americans could own businesses and live anywhere in South Florida. Like the rest of America, many chose new suburban communities with larger homes, new malls and jobs nearby. New freeways to suburban communities were built. The first purpose of the Interstate Highway System was to easily transport military equipment and forces nationwide, so extending I-95 Freeway to Miami was a top priority. Given the unprecedented geo-political-racial-transportation climate, swift policy decisions with bad unintended consequences were inevitable.

Since Black Miami was a Pawn on the chessboard of Cold War Cuba Policy, federal and state governments permitted construction of a major freeway interchange in the heart of economically stable Overtown. The freeway interchange had a dagger-like effect on the black community. With only historic churches remaining as anchors, Overtown became a worn-out husk of its former self. Middleclass residents moved from Overtown to Broward County, points north or out of state. City officials offered the poorest Overtown residents opportunity for public housing in Liberty City. As a unincorporated district without a tax base or political power, despair in the concentrated poverty of Liberty City was palpable.

The federal, state and city government did not develop a comprehensive plan to preserve & enhance black businesses and middleclass homes in and adjacent to Overtown concurrent with Cuban Immigrant assistance. When urbanologists and historians look back on 1959-1990 Miami, they can easily document how Cold War Cuba Policy destabilized Miami’s black community."


A Timeline: Black History in the Miami Valley 1798 to 2001, Dayton Daily News


Orlando Minority Media Outlets

Central Florida Black Journailst Association

Cuba and Florida

The US, the Exiled Plantocracy, and Race

Cuba's Plantocracy: Cuban American business and terrorism

Questions about Black Cubans in Miami,

Ife-Ile Afro-Cuban Dance Company, Miami


AfroCubans in the UStop

Alan A. Aja
Miami’s Forgotten Cubans
Race, Racialization, and the Miami Afro-Cuban Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, 2016

This book explores the reception experiences of post-1958 Afro-Cubans in South Florida in relation to their similarly situated “white” Cuban compatriots. Utilizing interviews, ethnographic observations, and applying Census data analyses, Aja begins not with the more socially diverse 1980 Mariel boatlift, but earlier, documenting that a small number of middle-class Afro-Cuban exiles defied predominant settlement patterns in the 1960 and 70s, attempting to immerse themselves in the newly formed but ultimately racially exclusive “ethnic enclave.” Confronting a local Miami Cuban “white wall” and anti-black Southern racism subsumed within an intra-group “success” myth that equally holds Cubans and other Latin Americans hail from “racial democracies,” black Cubans immigrants and their children, including subsequent waves of arrival and return-migrants, found themselves negotiating the boundaries of being both “black” and “Latino” in the United States.

Click here for pricing & to order  ==>   

Michelle Hay
"I've Been Black In Two Countries": Black Cuban Views on Race in the US, 2009

Hay describes how black Cubans experience racism on two levels. Cuban racism might result in less access for black Cubans to their group's resources, including protection within Cuban enclaves from society-wide discrimination. In society at large, black Cubans are below white Cubans on every socioeconomic indicator. Rejected by their white co-ethnics, black Cubans are welcomed by other groups of African descent. Many hold similar political views as African Americans. Identifying with African Americans neither negatively affects social mobility nor leads to a rejection of mainstream values and norms. Those who identified most with African Americans were college-educated professionals, some of whom credited African American traditions for their achievements, their affirming feeling about blackness, and their ability to negotiate racism.

Click here for pricing & to order  ==>

Monika Gosin

Primary research interests include: Afro Cuban and other Afro Latino immigration experiences in the U.S.; African American and Latino relations; immigrant incorporation into US society. My current research focuses on the impact of two waves of Cuban immigration, the 1980 Mariel boatlift and the 1994 Balsero crisis, on the African American and Cuban exile communities in Miami. The project also foregrounds the experiences of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., a demographic which grew in the course of these migration waves. This work is the basis for a broader study utilizing data from interviews I previously conducted in Miami, Los Angeles, and Cuba to examine the effect of migration experiences on Afro-Cuban notions of race and identity; experiences which challenge U.S. and Latin American racial and ethnic categories, as well as notions of whiteness, Pan-Africanism, and of Pan-Latinidad.  --

Gosin, Monika. 2017. "A Bitter Diversion: Afro-Cuban Immigrants, Race, and Every day-Life Resistance." Latino Studies.15:4-28.

The Death of “la Reina de la Salsa:” Celia Cruz and the Mythification of the Black Woman

Antonio Lopez

Unbecoming Blackness
The Diaspora Cultures of Afro-Cuban America   

In Unbecoming Blackness, Antonio López uncovers an important, otherwise unrecognized century-long archive of literature and performance that reveals Cuban America as a space of overlapping Cuban and African diasporic experiences.

López shows how Afro-Cuban writers and performers in the U.S. align Cuban black and mulatto identities, often subsumed in the mixed-race and postracial Cuban national imaginaries, with the material and symbolic blackness of African Americans and other Afro-Latinas/os. In the works of Alberto O’Farrill, Eusebia Cosme, Rómulo Lachatañeré, and others, Afro-Cubanness articulates the African diasporic experience in ways that deprive negro and mulato configurations of an exclusive link with Cuban nationalism. Instead, what is invoked is an “unbecoming” relationship between Afro-Cubans in the U.S and their domestic black counterparts. The transformations in Cuban racial identity across the hemisphere, represented powerfully in the literary and performance cultures of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., provide the fullest account of a transnational Cuba, one in which the Cuban American emerges as Afro-Cuban-American, and the Latino as Afro-Latino.


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