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Black Florida | Black Miami

Trailer for The Black Miami, a documentary based on Black Miami
Dr. Marvin Dunn

Black Florida Organizations

100 Black Men of South Florida, Inc.

904Ward, Jacksonville

African Village, Jacksonville

Afro-Latino Professionals

The Black Archives, History & Research Foundation of
South Florida Inc

Democratic Black Caucus of Florida

Miami Dade Chamber of Commerce

NAACP Florida State Conference

Roots in the City, South Florida, Marvin Dunn
CBS    Redland Rambles

#TheNorthsideCoalitionOfJacksonville on Facebook

Northside Coalition, Ben Frazier, Jacksonville

Related Organizations
Miami has the 6th largest Black population of any metropolitan area in the nation at 1,229,061 which is 21% of the total. Many are not aware that Miami’s Black population is so large. Almost 20% of this population is foreign born.

Miami’s Forgotten Cubans by Alan A. Aja

The Racial Politics of Division: Interethnic Struggles for Legitimacy in Multicultural Miami, Monika Goslin

White Supremacy and Miami Cubans

La Supremacia Blanca y los Cubanos de Miami

Black Florida Media

Black Viewpoint, Jacksonville

Central Florida Advocate

Daytona Times

Florida Courier

Jacksonville Free Press

Miami Times

Orlando Advocate

Orlando Times

Black Politico, Orlando

Pensacola Voice

South Florida Times

Tallahasse Capital Outlook

The Westside Gazette, Fort Lauderdale


Here's What Black Scholars Have To Say About The AP African American Studies Backlash  2/17/2023 The Root: "Dr. Michael Ralph, Chair of Howard’s Afro-American Studies, echoes Jeffries’ concerns about the absence of Crenshaw and other Black feminist and intersectional scholarship and movement work in the course. “Crenshaw’s concept of intersectionality is one of the most important and most influential contributions to social science and social theory we have yet seen,” says Dr. Ralph. Getting rid of these intersectional voices, especially the voices of LGBTQ+ and women Black scholars who might be considered controversial, is a massive loss, says Howard Professor Jo Von McCalester."

Rev. Al Sharpton Is Coming Hard For Florida's Ron DeSantis and His Racist Bullsh*t  2/16/2023 The Root: "Though Florida Governor Ron DeSantis has set his sights on erasing Black history from statewide curriculum, Black folks refuse to take this lying down. Hundreds of Black preachers, activists and legislators protested on Wednesday, February 15 with a march from Bethel Missionary Baptist Church in Tallahassee to the Capitol building."

CNN’s Don Lemon Asks Black History Activist If DeSantis Is Like Those Preschool Teachers In Blackface Incident  2/15/2023 Mediaite: "I think he gets it. I think he is using our state as the test lab to see how the nation responds. Because he wants to run for president. And what we want to show the nation, Don, is if you allow him to run for president, what you’re seeing in a microcosmic way in Florida is what you will see in a macrocosmic way in the nation."

Ron DeSantis’s war on “woke” in Florida schools, explained  2/15/2023 Vox: "From book bans to a hostile campus takeover, here’s a rundown of DeSantis’s conservative plan for Florida education."

Jacksonville faith leaders & Northside Coalition traveling to Tallahassee for rally at Capitol  2/14/2023 News4Jax: "The Rev. Al Sharpton — as well as Jacksonville faith leaders, including Bishop Rudolph W. McKissick Jr., senior pastor of the Bethel Church in Jacksonville, will make the trip as keynote speakers. McKissick has previously spoken out about the administration’s move. “Tell me why you think this has no value for those going to college. Tell me. What are you afraid your children are going to discover about the history of this country?” McKissick told News4JAX in January. Ben Frazier, of the Northside Coalition of Jacksonville, spearheaded a motorcade of a few dozen people Wednesday that left from the intersection of Laura and State streets in Jacksonville around 7 a.m. They were headed to the demonstration in Tallahassee."

Christopher Rufo's anti-DEI crusade visits University of South Florida  2/13/2023 Axios: "Rufo called on DeSantis to "not hesitate in demolishing these offices, terminating the employment of their commissars, and restoring the colorblind equality, individual merit, and scholarly excellence as the guiding principles of the academy.""

DeSantis’ attempt to roll back diversity, equity, and inclusion is doomed to fail  2/12/2023 Tallahassee Democrat: "In the real world, corporate America has overwhelmingly adopted diversity, equity, and inclusion. All the Fortune 100 companies have made a public commitment to DEI. Why? Because the young, talented workers they want to attract are demanding it. Employees now expect their employer to promote the values they hold. Why did Disney come out against DeSantis’ “Don’t Say Gay” law? Because Disney employees around the country wouldn’t stand for anything less. The unemployment rate is unprecedentedly low … it’s hard to attract top talent. Millennials and Gen-Z are driving the workforce now and they expect DEI to be a priority."

Florida is officially a laboratory for fascism in the U.S.  2/7/2023 Salon: "The Black Freedom Struggle is one of the most successful pro-democracy resistance movements in American (and world) history. DeSantis and the other Republican-fascists and their forces do not want these lessons to be known, learned, or otherwise disseminated. DeSantis is working to create a type of "regime of knowledge" where Black, brown and other marginalized people's triumphs and experiences are outright erased and/or grossly distorted as a way of literally removing their personhood and existence."

Miami Black leaders apologize to Gov. Ron DeSantis after a member called him racist  2/5/2023 Fox News: "Black leaders in Miami apologized to Florida Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis after one of its members called him a racist. Pierre Rutledge, chair of the Miami-Dade Black Affairs Advisory Board, issued a statement on behalf of his board that apologized to DeSantis for a comment made at their Wednesday meeting from a member who said, "our governor is racist.""

Call the "woke busters": Ron DeSantis sends volunteer army to snatch books from students' hands  2/3/2023 Salon: "DeSantis' lieutenant and Florida Commissioner of Education, Manny Diaz Jr., called the story "fake news" and accused the teachers of overreacting. But, as Judd Legum of Popular Info confirmed in a follow-up report, "Diaz's recommendations to teachers directly contradicts the training produced by his own agency," which requires all books to be prescreened and warns that the censors must "err on the side of caution" when deciding if a book fits the very right-wing definition of "harmful to minors." As Legum points out, one author that has been frequently targeted by Republican censors is Pulitzer Prize winner Toni Morrison, making it clear that it's not "pornography" that is in dispute here — which no one actually thinks teachers were providing — but internationally renowned literature. That explains why books about the Holocaust and Martin Luther King Jr. have also been frequently targeted by Republicans for bans."

What’s really behind Florida’s attack on African American Studies  2/3/2023 CNN: "There is a very good explanation for the choice to focus public attention on false definitions of critical race theory. By assigning values to CRT that many people will find offensive or morally repugnant, the DeSantis administration can gain public support for censoring the group of people who are most likely to cite research categorized as CRT or be cited by scholars using CRT — African Americans. If CRT teaches that some people are better than other people (it doesn’t), or that White children are to blame for the actions of White people across history (it doesn’t), then White parents should regard the people who write about CRT as dangerous influences."

Rubio Releases Anti-woke Agenda for the 118th Congress  2/2/2023 Marco Rubio: "Restoring Military Focus Act. First introduced in November 2022, this legislation would eliminate the position of Chief Diversity Officer (CDO) within the DOD and prohibit federal funds from being used to establish any similar office. Senators Jim Risch (R-ID), Tom Cotton (R-AR), Mike Crapo (R-ID), Ted Cruz (R-TX), Marsha Blackburn (R-TN), and James Lankford (R-OK) are cosponsors. Representative Chip Roy (R-TX) introduced companion legislation in the House. Protecting Students From Racial Hostility Act. First introduced in July 2021, this legislation would protect students from racially-hostile school environments created by the teaching of Critical Race Theory (CRT) by directing the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights to enforce Title VI protections of the Civil Rights Act when a parent or student impacted by CRT submits a complaint. Senator Mike Braun (R-IN) is a cosponsor."

Americans Demand Freedom from Woke Ideology  2/2/2023 Marco Rubio: "That’s why I am reintroducing eight bills to protect the American people from radical woke activism in all its forms. If we become a country where left-wing protestors are exempt from the law, Wall Street wields investors’ dollars as a weapon against conservatives, and the U.S. government undermines the national interest, we won’t last long. Common-sense policymakers have a duty to hold elites accountable and prevent wokeness from turning the land of the free into another Cuba, Venezuela, or Nicaragua."

Florida Commissioner of Education attacks Popular Information  2/1/2023 Popular Information 

La teoría crítica de la raza, prohibida en las universidades de Florida  1/25/2023 Al dia: "Según The Chronicle of Higher Education, los presidentes de los 28 colegios estatales y comunitarios de Florida dijeron en una declaración el miércoles que identificarían y eliminarían, antes del 1 de febrero, cualquier requisito académico o programa "que obligue a creer en la teoría crítica de la raza o conceptos relacionados como la interseccionalidad". Los presidentes afirmaron que las iniciativas están impulsando "ideologías como la teoría crítica de la raza y sus postulados relacionados", en lugar de promover lo que se supone que deberían: la diversidad, la equidad y la inclusión."

Florida school district cancels real history as anti-CRT censorship spreads  1/24/2023 Salon: "This past Saturday, Dr. J. Michael Butler, the Kenan Distinguished Professor of History at Flagler College in St. Augustine, was supposed to lead a day-long seminar for Osceola County elementary school teachers on "The Long Civil Rights Movement." The event was hosted by the nonprofit National Council for History Education, a leading provider of professional development for history teachers, and was part of a three-year partnership between the council and the district to enrich history education at underserved public schools. (Osceola County, just southeast of Orlando, has a population of close to 400,000, which is nearly two-thirds Black or Latino, and a median household income of $52,000, well below the national median.)"

Civil rights leaders plan rally to protest Florida’s decision to reject AP African-American studies class  1/23/2023 News4Jax: "Faith and civic leaders will launch a statewide movement to reverse the Florida Department of Education’s decision on African American studies."

DeSantis: la clase de estudios afroamericanos prohibida incluye una lección de “teoría queer”  1/23/2023 Local 10, Miami: "El Comisionado de Educación de Florida, Manny Diaz Jr, se refirió al curso como “adoctrinamiento woke disfrazado de educación”. DeSantis también dijo que el plan de estudios fue diseñado para impulsar una agenda política."

AP Teacher’s Guide Proves DeSantis Right in African-American Studies Clash  1/23/2023 National Review: "In the wake of the controversy, however, the Florida Standard newspaper has obtained a copy of the pilot APAAS curriculum and made it public. In another new development, I have now obtained a copy of a second document, the “APAAS Pilot Course Guide,” a manual designed for use by teachers. Taken together, the curriculum framework and the teacher’s guide expand our understanding of the course in a way that confirms the wisdom of DeSantis’s decision."

FIU professor’s ‘Teach the Truth’ tours defy DeSantis law on black history lessons  1/23/2023 The Grio: "Marvin Dunn, 82, one of eight plaintiffs in a complaint concerning DeSantis’ Stop Wrongs to Our Kids and Employees Act, has been leading high school students on his “Teach the Truth” tour since Florida’s Republican governor began his mission to devalue Black studies."

Florida says AP class teaches critical race theory. Here's what's really in the course  1/22/2023 NPR: "Florida rejected an AP course filled with Critical Race Theory and other obvious violations of Florida law," Florida Education Commissioner Manny Diaz Jr. wrote on Twitter on Friday. "We proudly require the teaching of African American history. We do not accept woke indoctrination masquerading as education," he added. But Tinson denied accusations that the theory will be taught in the course. While the class will explore the issue of inequality, the framework itself is too advanced for high school students even in a college-level course, according to Tinson."

Florida cites CRT, ‘Black Struggle,’ and communism in rejected African American course  1/21/2023 Orlando Sentinel: "The administration does not want to ban the teaching of African American history, which for years has been a required subject in Florida public schools, but it cannot allow a course to be taught if it violates Florida law and amounts to “woke indoctrination masquerading as education,” tweeted Education Commissioner Manny Diaz, a former GOP state senator tapped by DeSantis for the top school job last year."

Florida Explains Why It Blocked Black History Class—and It’s a Doozy  1/20/2023 Daily Beast: "The Florida Department of Education says it banned AP African American History because it teaches students about activism, intersectionality and encourages “ending the war on Black trans, queer, gender non-conforming, and intersex people,” according to a document the department sent to The Daily Beast."

Rejected African American Studies Course in Florida Features CRT, Intersectionality and Queer Theory  1/19/2023 Florida Standard: [Links to download of the full AP syllabus.] "Section 4 of the syllabus introduces the topic “Postracial Racism and Colorblindness” and features texts from Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, who employs Critical Race Theory in his writings. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva’s book Racism without Racists describes how “Whites talk, think, and account for the existence of racial inequality and makes clear that color-blind racism is as insidious now as ever.” The book’s second chapter, entitled “What is Systemic Racism? Coming to Terms with How Racism Shapes ‘All’ Whites (and Non-Whites)” explains how “all members of society participate in structural racism,” according to an online summary."

Administración de DeSantis bloquea clases de estudios afroestadounidenses en las escuelas secundarias de Florida  1/19/2023 CNN: "En 2021, el estado promulgó una ley que prohibía enseñar el concepto que explora la historia del racismo sistémico en Estados Unidos y sus continuos impactos. La ley también prohibió el material de The 1619 Project, un proyecto ganador del premio Pulitzer de The New York Times para reformular la historia estadounidense en torno a la llegada de barcos de esclavos a las costas estadounidenses. El año pasado, DeSantis también firmó un proyecto de ley que restringe cómo las escuelas pueden hablar sobre la raza con los estudiantes."

El presidente del Partido Demócrata de la Florida renuncia tras deplorables resultados electorales Read more at:  1/10/2023 Nuevo Herald: [Padre e hijo, ambos cubanos blancos, han hecho mucho para mantener abajo a 1,2 millones de afros en el sur de la Florida. El padre no hizo nada para revertir el abastecimiento del Partido Demócrata a los cubanos y venezolanos blancos, el hijo impulsó la ley Anti-WOKE.] "Díaz, ex alcalde de Miami, fue elegido para el cargo hace dos años por activistas del partido para que ayudara a cambiar las cosas en el estado más poblado de la nación después de las decepcionantes elecciones de 2020. En cambio, según su propia definición, se va con los republicanos firmemente con el control y el partido en ruinas."

Muzzled by DeSantis, Critical Race Theory Professors Cancel Courses or Modify Their Teaching  1/3/2023 ProPublica: "A month before the fall 2022 semester was set to start, he scrapped both courses. Students scrambled to register for other classes. “It didn’t seem like it was worth the risk,” said Cox, who taught a graduate course on inequality and education instead. “I’m completely unprotected.” He added, “Somebody who’s not even in the class could come after me. Somebody sees the course catalog, complains to a legislator — next thing I know, I’m out of a job.”"

'The Stop WOKE Act': HB 7, Race, and Florida's 21st Century AntiLiteracy Campaign  9/1/2022 University of Florida: "Florida’s Stop the Wrongs to Our Kids and Employees Act (Stop WOKE) took effect July 1, 2022. The new law, known as House Bill 7 (HB 7), regulates how race issues can be taught in the K-20 educational system and imposes stiff sanctions for violations. This Article provides an incisive analysis of HB 7, with a particular focus on the law school classroom. It begins with a discussion of anti-literacy laws adopted during slavery and how these laws prohibited enslaved Blacks from learning to read and write. The historical analysis establishes that HB 7 is a modern-day iteration of anti-literacy laws. While early anti-literacy laws prohibited basic literacy, HB 7 prohibits teaching substantive literacy about race. Anti-literacy provides a framework for understanding the breadth and impact of HB 7. The Article investigates HB 7 through two prominent theoretical lenses, racial threat and critical race theory. These analyses predict and explain legislative responses such as HB 7. Through a series of hypotheticals, the far-reaching problems of HB 7 are revealed. This Article establishes the broad powers of HB 7. At full bore, HB 7 will drastically reduce race-related instruction and in doing so, it will likely delegitimize race scholarship and race scholars in the state of Florida."

Critical Race Theory: My concern for public education in Florida  7/6/2022 Tallahassee Democrat: "Consider the wealth gap between Black and white Americans. Rather than recognizing how generational wealth and income inequality affect wages, it will be credited to Black Americans being lazier, having unskilled jobs, and being uneducated. Would these instances not make Black students feel the mental distress that the bill attempts to prevent?"

Some teachers alarmed by Florida civics training approach on religion, slavery  6/28/2022 Tampa Bay: "Those dynamics came into full view last week, when trainers told Broward teachers the nation’s founders did not desire a strict separation of state and church, downplayed the role the colonies and later the United States had in the history of slavery in America, and pushed a judicial theory, favored by legal conservatives like DeSantis, that requires people to interpret the Constitution as the framers intended it, not as a living, evolving document, according to three educators who attended the training." [Most of the Founders were Deists, not Christians.]

Why a Dem dream candidate can't touch Rubio in Florida  6/11/2022 Politico: "“This is my race. And this race is between Marco Rubio and me,” Demings said in an interview. “I know Marco wants me to focus on the president’s approval ratings. I can control what I’m doing. I can’t control the president’s approval ratings.” Yet as a sign of how gloomy Florida looks for Democrats, neither the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee nor a super PAC that backs Senate Democrats has reserved any ad time in the state. Demings may not get any measurable help in a state that may be slipping away from her party. She’s now focusing on two issues in the hopes of energizing voters, though political advisers warn it may be a losing proposition. It’s another sign that the key Senate race may be out of reach for Democrats, further jeopardizing the party’s control of Congress. Demings has started to hammer Rubio over gun control and abortion in an effort to turn the tide in a race where polls have shown her trailing the two-term Republican. She has spent time in recent campaign stops highlighting Rubio’s opposition to abortion after the disclosure of the Supreme Court’s initial draft opinion overturning the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision."

Florida wants to avoid critical race theory and ‘social justice’ in social studies texts  5/20/2022 Politico: "The state is also targeting social emotional learning, which has recently emerged as another topic under criticism from DeSantis. Social emotional learning aims to teach students how to manage their emotions and develop strong relationships with their peers. This is counted as an “unsolicited” strategy to FLDOE, which told publishers to refrain from teachings on “identity and identity identification concepts; managing emotion; developing relationships and social awareness.”"

Senador Manny Díaz es el primer hispano a cargo de la educación en Florida  4/29/2022 SwissInfo: "Recibió su licenciatura de la Universidad de St. Thomas, obtuvo una maestría en Educación en Nova Southeastern University, y completó un programa para directores de la Escuela de Graduados en Educación de Harvard."

DeSantis recommends Sen. Manny Diaz for education commissioner  4/21/2022 Palm Beach Post: "Diaz co-sponsored a measure that passed the Legislature this past session, but has yet to be signed into law by DeSantis, to set guidelines around discussions teachers and businesses can have about race. The bill was pushed by DeSantis as a means to fight critical race theory and passed the Florida Senate on a party-line vote last month. The legislation bars instruction to make members of a race feel guilty for past actions committed by people of that same race, and bars teaching that meritocracy is racist. It also expands language in state law on requiring teaching on the history of slavery and racial oppression."

How Florida’s ‘anti-woke’ bill could impact public universities  4/16/2022 Tampa Bay Times: "That virtues such as merit, excellence, hard work, fairness, neutrality, objectivity and racial colorblindness are racist or sexist, or were created by members of a particular race, color, sex or national origin to oppress members of another race, color, sex or national origin."

No veto for Miami’s new map as Mayor Francis Suarez bows out — again  4/5/2022 Political Cortadito: "Suarez apparently asked for DeGrandy to address allegations from both the NAACP and the ACLU about breaking up a black voting bloc in the West Grove as well as arguments that the new map “benefits elected officials in an improper manner.” Ladra wonders who he meant by that (read: Joe Carollo). The mayor also wanted the consultant to “explain whether the adopted plan minimizes the movement of African Americans from D2 to other districts,” which seems like a scripted question, especially based on the answers that Suarez would purportedly have no knowledge of."

FL Legislature stuck last-minute policy changes to HB 7; critics call it a ‘huge problem’  3/14/2022 Florida Phoenix: "“So basically it took a bill, turned it on its head and basically said ‘oh if you have a complaint, if you believe that a higher education institution, for example, taught history or taught racism in a way that made you feel uncomfortable, in violation of the Stop WOKE Act, you can bring that complaint to a political committee of the Florida Legislature.’ I say political because it is made up of politicians with Republicans in the majority. That committee will be the judge, jury, and executioner on all violations of House Bill 7.”"

Florida House passes measure limiting race-related instruction  2/24/2022 WLRN Miami: "Under the measure, school instruction or workplace training would constitute discrimination if it “compels” people to believe certain concepts. For example, the measure targets training sessions that would lead people to believe that they bear “responsibility for, or should be discriminated against or receive adverse treatment because of, actions committed in the past by other members of the same race” or sex."

State Senator Manny Diaz Jr. On Critical Race Theory Afro Latino scholars and activists slam Gov. DeSantis' dissection of AP African American studies  2/14/2022 CBS: "CBS4's Facing South Florida host Jim DeFede inteviews State Senator Manny Diaz Jr. He spoke about critical race theory."

After fiery debate, ‘Individual Freedom’ bill banning ‘woke’ lessons in schools, businesses heads to House floor  2/9/2022 Florida Politics: "Its sponsor, Rep. Bryan Ávila of Miami Springs, acknowledged the bill “brings out a lot of passion” but insisted its aim was not to discriminate."

DeSantis asks Florida court if Black congressman’s district is constitutional  2/1/2022 AP: "The Republican governor posed his question to the Florida Supreme Court on Tuesday. Democratic U.S. Rep. Al Lawson said DeSantis is race baiting to build political points."

Freedom from discomfort or a knowledge ban? ‘Individual freedom’ bill covering schools, businesses moves in House  1/26/2022 Florida Politics: "Ávila and Republican Rep. Mike Beltran of Lithia repeatedly insisted the bill would not stop the instruction of difficult historical subjects including slavery, the Holocaust or internment camps. The bill only requires they be taught objectively, and that teachers not wander from the approved curriculum."

Black lawmakers hammer Ileana Garcia over ‘deeply hurtful’ race comments  1/20/2022 Politico: "Some Black members of the Florida Senate have soured on Miami Republican Sen. Ileana Garcia after she said during a TV interview that people should “move on” from experiences with racism — comments that came days after she quietly clashed with a veteran Black senator after an otherwise mundane committee meeting."

Fla. State Sen. Ileana Garcia On Critical Race Theory: 'I Have Been Discriminated On All Fronts. Should We Take It Personally?'  1/18/2022 CBS: "DeFede asked her, "You don't think that the African American experience today is different than the experience by either yourself or someone like me.?" Garcia said, "No, not at all. As a matter of fact... That's why we had Obama as a president. That's the best example in the world. Obama was president now for four years for eight." Senate sponsor Manny Diaz Jr., R-Hialeah, told reporters after the committee meeting: "The intention of the bill … is to make sure that these trainings that occur are objective, and that we're not finding a person guilty of something just because of their ethnic background or the color of their skin. I think that we have to go back to the premise that all of us are created equal, and we should be judged on our individual merits, or deeds, not a blanket statement."

'Shameful and appalling': Ron DeSantis moves press conference following arrest of well-known community activist  1/5/2022 Alternet: "Rep. Angie Nixon, a Jacksonville-based Democrat who serves in the Florida House of Representatives, was highly critical of DeSantis and his staff when she told the Times-Union, “The governor runs and hides when the people demand to be a priority…. Public service is the people’s business, and the governor must answer for his failings. There’s nothing private about America witnessing the suffering that Floridians have endured because of Gov. DeSantis’ people-last strategy. The treatment of Mr. Ben Frazier, a disabled civil-rights activist and member of my community, was shameful and appalling.”"

Florida activist handcuffed while trying to attend DeSantis news conference  1/4/2022 WaPo: "Frazier said he wanted to listen, then talk to DeSantis about the pandemic and the “antiriot” bill that the governor signed into law last year. The Northside Coalition is one of several groups that have sued the DeSantis administration over the new law, which they say violates the First Amendment by placing limitations on public demonstrations."

Democrats riled by Spanish-language radio attacks on Kamala Harris  12/21/2021 Politico: "Florida Democrats are sounding alarms over what they believe is a sustained and coordinated campaign rapidly unfolding across Spanish-language media to tarnish the image of Vice President Kamala Harris. Democratic veterans in the state are unnerved by the ferocity and speed of the attacks, which have come from callers and guests on local radio programs in recent weeks. They suspect the participants are part of a larger, astroturf effort to diminish Harris’ standing among key Latino constituencies in a region where Republicans have notched sharp gains. Even more worrying for these Democrats has been the lack of pushback from their party. The fears spilled out into the open when a Miami-based Democratic pollster took to social media to warn that he’s been hearing arguments against the vice president from talk-show callers that he felt appeared scripted."

Black Lives Matter Support for Socialism Creates Sharp Divide with Cuban Americans  8/4/2021 Newsweek: "Cubans, Mohl wrote, injected "new life" into the city, but "also brought in the wake of their invasion a host of grave social and economic problems." Those problems included competition for jobs, housing, schools, and government services. "The Cubans are slowly taking over the business of Dade County," complained the Miami Times, the city's Black weekly newspaper, in 1966."

Critican a Black Lives Matter por los invitados que elige para foro virtual sobre Cuba  7/27/2021 Cibercuba: "En un escrito de abril de este año, titulado ‘Contra la rabia política: una vacuna y una propuesta’, Zurbano analizó el impacto del Movimiento San Isidro (MSI) en la dinámica actual de conflictos y propuestas dentro de la cultura y la política de la Cuba actual desde una visión que, si bien incidió en el racismo latente dentro del proceso “revolucionario”, redujo el potencial verdaderamente revolucionario del MSI y llamó a estar preparados para la “racialización” interesada de conflictos por parte del “el escenario mediático de Miami”."

Miami Police Chief Clashes With Proud Boys Member at Cuba Protest  7/14/2021 Miami New Times: "Why are you with Black Lives Matter?" the man asks Acevedo, referring to the former Houston police chief's words of support in the media for social-justice protests last year. Asked again about why he supports the Black Lives Matter movement, Acevedo becomes incensed."

Florida Democrats shouldn’t be punishing internal dissent | Bill Cotterell  6/17/2021 Talahassee Democrat: "The Palm Beach County Democratic Executive Committee voted overwhelmingly on June 3 to censure four of the county’s school board members for voting to remove the words “white advantage” from a policy statement. The statement said Palm Beach County schools are “committed to dismantling structures rooted in white advantage and transforming our system by hearing and elevating under-represented voices, sharing power, recognizing and eliminating bias and redistributing resources to provide equitable outcomes.”"

Florida Board of Education adopts rule banning ‘critical race theory’ in public schools  6/11/2021 News 4 Jax: "The original rule change proposal, which bars teachers from attempting “ indoctrinate or persuade students to a particular point of view,” did not mention “critical race theory” specifically, but the language was added in an amendment offered by Board member Tom Grady during Thursday’s meeting at FSCJ’s downtown campus in Jacksonville."

Florida State Board of Education Bans the Use of Critical Race Theory in Schools  6/10/2021 Ed Week: "Lessons that deal with critical race theory and the “1619 Project” are not welcome in Florida’s public schools following a State Board of Education vote on Thursday."

'Unacceptable': Only 7 percent of vaccinated Florida residents are Black  5/12/2021 Politico: “Gov. DeSantis and the folks around him need to move heaven and earth to get vaccines to the black community, and as they do this I don’t want to hear them blame their inability to equitably distribute the vaccine to people of color on vaccine hesitancy,” he said."

Miami-Dade’s wealthiest areas are almost fully vaccinated. Black communities are at 31%  4/26/2021 Miami Herald: "Politicians have been quick to blame the disparity on vaccine “hesitancy.” But residents of under-vaccinated communities interviewed by the Herald described a far more complex range of emotional reasoning and logistical hurdles. There was never just one thing that kept someone from getting vaccinated but rather a compounding and often fluid set of circumstances: lack of information from trusted sources, a complicated appointment sign-up system that privileged white-collar workers with more flexible schedules and paid time off, difficult-to-reach vaccination sites that required access to a car, and doctor’s note requirements that disproportionately hurt underinsured Black and brown communities that have less access to doctors."

Miami’s Republican Cuban Americans need to soul search and confront their racism  4/7/2021 Miami Herald 

Residents defend Robert E. Lee High: 'Jesus himself never condemned slavery'  3/25/2021 CNN: "A school board in Jacksonville, Florida, proposed changing the name of its Robert E. Lee High School and held community hearings on the issue. Comments made in support of the name outraged many at the hearings."

The Batistafication of Florida  3/1/2021 Wayne Madsen Report: "The Euro-Cubans, as a voting bloc, must be written off as unobtainable. They are far too rooted in the fascism of their old hero, Batista, and new hero, Trump, to be of political use to a progressive political party. Instead, the Democrats should concentrate their voter registration and get-out-the-vote (GOTV) efforts on the Afro-Cubans, many who arrived in Florida in the El Mariel boatlifts in 1980, as well as working class Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, Haitians, Bahamians, Jamaicans (America has a Vice President of Jamaican descent), Trinidadians, Afro-Colombians and Afro-Venezuelans, and Amerindians from Latin America"

Over 50% of the elected Democratic Party legislators from Miami-Dade are Black  2/18/2021 Miami-Dade Democrats: "Did you know that over 50% of the elected Democratic Party legislators from Miami-Dade are Black? Does anyone know the number for Miami-Dade Republicans?"

Where is Florida Democrats’ Stacey Abrams?  2/10/2021 Orlando Sentinel: "Since Election Day, the Florida Democratic Party has been trying to recover from the disastrous cycle. Their first reaction was to choose a Miami Cuban American, former Miami Mayor Manny Diaz, to lead the party out of the wilderness. Poor performance among Latino voters, especially South Florida’s Cuban Americans, was cited as a key factor in the Democrats’ anemic showing. However, in the wake of Georgia’s success, party leaders should be asking: Where’s our Stacey Abrams?"

Leilani Bruce’s Candela Book Club Explores Afro-Cuban Experiences  2/9/2021 Start Up Cuba TV: "Candela, an eloquent acronym that stands for Cuban-American Narratives and Dialogue for Equity, Liberation and Allyship, found its roots over the summer amidst the tragedies of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and Ahmaud Arbery. Along with the Cuba One Foundation, the Miami Freedom Project began a dialogue about systemic racism in Cuban-American communities. This dialogue expanded to a Whatsapp conversation, virtual meetings, and finally blossomed into the birth of the Candela book club, which is meant to highlight black voices and Afro-Cuban stories."

Brevard County: Deputy Jafet Santiago-Miranda Executes Black Teen for Driving Past Him  11/22/2020 Cop Blaster: "Brevard County Deputy Sheriff's Office (BCSO) Deputy Jafet Santiago-Miranda executed two black teenagers for trying to drive past him. The shooting was caught on his dash camera where you can clearly see that the vehicle he shot at was turning right in an effort to drive past him (see video below). The vehicle was obviously going to great lengths to evade the officers without actually hitting them."

Florida’s reeling Democrats struggle to reclaim the Sunshine State  11/6/2020 Sun Sentinel: "Tuesday exposed a litany of problems for a divided party: insufficient voter registration; lack of on-the-ground campaigning; a dearth of young, charismatic candidates; neglect of the minority population; an unfocused message to voters; and the inability to counter Trump’s socialist branding — all of this complicated by the paralyzing environment of COVID-19."

Review shows objectionable content routinely appeared in columns in el Nuevo Herald insert  9/20/2020 Miami Herald: "The columnist wrote that Michelle Obama reminds him of a “black monster” in Dante’s Inferno. Other times, he wrote that Islam is “filth,” Native Americans “primitive” and Africa the “ass of the world.” On another occasion still, he called George Floyd “ugly,” a “common criminal” and the protests over his death at the hands of police “racial whoremongering.” And then there’s the time that he wrote, in all apparent seriousness, that Black Lives Matter protesters should summarily be put to death."

South Florida Grapples With Its Own Contested Monuments Of Spanish Conquistadors  6/30/2020 WLRN, Miami: "QUEELEY: I've thought about this question and what is the kind of society that I would envision that I would want to live in? What would they do? One of the obvious answers to that question is, of course, having them in museums, so they can actually be used as tools for education. I'm hoping that we're on the brink of some kind of process of truth and reconciliation nationally. And I wonder whether or not an actual burial of these statues would be appropriate in having some kind of ritual that would kind of signal that we are embarking upon a new chapter in this country."

WHEN LIBERTY BURNS  6/19/2020 Miami Film Festival: "On December 17, 1979, Arthur McDuffie failed to stop for a traffic light, and police officers gave chase. After realizing he could not escape, McDuffie surrendered. He was beaten until he lost consciousness, ultimately causing his death. The shocking acquittal of the offending officers charged in the murder sparked a civil disturbance in Miami’s urban core. The “McDuffie Riots” that followed in May 1980 caused the deaths of 18 people, millions of dollars in destruction, and became a symbol of the city’s struggle to contend with race relations and its sordid history during the Jim Crow era. The documentary engages family members and friends of Arthur McDuffie, retired police officers, eye witnesses, historians and contemporary community activists in interviews and it chronicles McDuffie’s life and his rich relationships with his family and his community. It traces, with brilliant insight, the dynamics of race relations in the City as it manages increasingly diverse ethnic populations, growth and change. And yet, 40 years later, this seminal Miami reckoning is in danger of disappearing from public consciousness – something that Alexis’ timely and important film seeks to redress."

Hallan muerta a activista de marchas contra el racismo en Florida  6/17/2020 Ruda: "La policía de Tallahassee informó del arresto de un sospechoso, Aaron Glee Jr., de 49 años. Éste ya había sido detenido en mayo pasado acusado de agresión agravada a una mujer y liberado bajo una fianza de 2 mil 500 dólares. En varios mensajes, la joven dijo que fue asaltada, que llamó a la Policía y que escapó. Salau se unió a las marchas de Black Lives Matter, en las que recitaba los nombres de hombres afroamericanos que murieron a manos de la policía, entre ellos George Floyd, según se ve en varios videos."

Marco Rubio called them ‘extremists.’ They’re really Miami rappers. They want a retraction.  6/10/2020 Miami Herald: "When cops arrested Marco Antonio Lopez on allegations that he vandalized patrol cars during a protest in downtown Miami, the arrest report noted he was part of a group known as the “Southern Slaves,” which “actively recruits people to violently protest the government.” That drew the attention of U.S. Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, who tweeted the arrest was evidence of “extremist groups” organizing to cause mayhem at protests over the death of George Floyd and police brutality. But the Southern Slaves aren’t an extremist group. And they are not monitored by the FBI or listed by hate-group trackers like the Anti-Defamation League or the Southern Poverty Law Center. They’re a group of aspiring hip-hop musicians from Miami’s Flagami neighborhood, buddies uploading their music online, doing shows at open-mic nights and spreading a message of what they consider government overreach. “We’re not terrorists. We love America. What we don’t love is systematic oppression and police brutality,” said Alonzo Martinez, 23, whose stage name is “Zo The Atlantean.”"

Videos show Miami Beach arrests of black spring breakers slammed as racist by NAACP  3/17/2020 NBC: "The Miami-Dade chapter of the NAACP is calling for the removal of the Miami Beach police chief and city manager in response to videos showing police interactions with black spring breakers last week. In one of the viral videos, a Miami Beach police officer appears to grab a young woman by the throat after she falls onto the street following a collision with an officer. That video was uploaded to social media and has been viewed more than 390,000 times."

STACEY ABRAMS DISCUSSES HOW TO HELP YOUNG FLORIDIANS VOTE AT MIAMI DADE COLLEGE  2/5/2020 Florida Dems: "“In 2018, almost 60,000 people voted at the 12 college campus polling locations around Florida — over half of those that voted on campus were under the age of 30. Your vote will not just determine your future, but the future of America. When Florida’s young people vote, Florida wins.”"

Haitian, Jamaican or American ... If you’re black in Miami, odds are you’re struggling  2/25/2019 Miami Herald: "A new study sheds light on the yawning gap in wealth in the Miami area between white households and households of color. Among non-white groups, it is Miami-area households identifying as black that continue to suffer most, according to the authors of the study, “The Color of Wealth in Miami.”"

11-year-old arrested after refusing to stand for Pledge of Allegiance  2/17/2019 NY Post: "The classroom kerfuffle happened when a substitute teacher, Ana Alvarez, ordered the boy to stand for the Pledge of Allegiance. When he told her he believed the flag was racist and the anthem was offensive, Alvarez asked him “why if it was so bad here he did not go to another place to live,” the teacher said in a statement to the school district. The teacher said he replied, “they brought me here.” Alvarez then told him, “Well you can always go back, because I came here from Cuba and the day I feel I’m not welcome here anymore I would find another place to live.”"

How was Miami’s Overtown neighborhood chosen as the place to expand I-95?  1/15/2019 The New tropic: "“By 1961, Overtown families began receiving surprise letters telling them they were expected to uproot and relocate from their homes within six to eight weeks,” Fields said in an email. “No mention was made of any appeal process, and ‘the rest is history.’” "

Video: Forget what you think you know about Overtown  12/17/2018 The New tropic: "Once considered “The Harlem of the South,” it was the gathering place for musicians such as Duke Ellington, Sammy Davis Jr. and Billie Holiday. But when the construction of I-95 divided the neighborhood into quadrants in the 1960s, Overtown’s economic stability collapsed, and so did its claim to fame as the entertainment capital of the South."

Five Signs the Florida Democratic Party Still Doesn't Get It  12/16/2018 Miami New Times: "Andrew Gillum was a strong candidate for governor. Ron DeSantis and Rick Scott were grotesque, cretinous candidates and seemingly awful human beings. Everything looked so easy. So of course the Florida Democrats blew it. They're the Florida Democrats! They're a group of party apparatchiks and generally privileged white people who treat political representation like a club and a hobby instead of seeing politics as the dire, important, often-life-altering issue it is. The party is staffed by people who reward those who stress loyalty and tradition over good ideas."

I dig through archives to unearth hidden stories from African-American history  12/4/2018 The Conversation: "Many years ago, as a graduate student searching in the archives of Spanish Florida, I discovered the first “underground railroad” of enslaved Africans escaping from Protestant Carolina to find religious sanctuary in Catholic Florida. In 1738, these runaways formed Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the first free black settlement in what became the U.S. The excitement of that discovery encouraged me to keep digging. After doing additional research in Spain, I followed the trail of the Mose villagers to Cuba, where they had emigrated when Great Britain acquired Florida. I found many of them in 18th-century church records in Havana, Matanzas, Regla, Guanabacoa and San Miguel del Padrón."

Gov. Rick Scott's Wildly Biased Voting Rights Board: Here's How He Reportedly Boosted Republicans and Disfavored Black Voters  10/25/2018 Alternet: "According to the Post's findings, Scott has restored the voting rights of twice as many whites as blacks, even though whites and blacks were released from state prisons at roughly the same rate. Furthermore, Scott re-enfranchised a higher percentage of Republicans, and a lower percentage of Democrats, than any governor since 1971."

Miami Republican chairman reportedly planned Pelosi protest with Proud Boys  10/20/2018 Think Progress: "Now another Republican has been connected to the Proud Boys. After an angry mob confronted and cursed at House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) during a campaign event for Donna Shalala (D-FL) in Coral Gables on Wednesday, the Washington Post reported the Florida protest “appears to have been organized by Nelson Diaz, the chairman of the Republican Party in Miami-Dade County.”"

Miami GOP Chairman Nelson Diaz leading Proud Boys hate group in attack on Democratic campaign office  10/19/2018 YouTube: "The Republican Party Miami-Dade's County Chairman led an angry mob of partisans with the local leader of national hate group the Proud Boys in an attack on a Democratic campaign office the week."

Miami GOP Chairman just caught leading Proud Boys in attack on Democratic campaign office  10/19/2018 The Stern Fact: "Chairman Diaz even told me that he never heard of the Proud Boys, even though the Miami New Times caught local GOP Congressman Mario Diaz-Balart posting a photo of himself with one candidate of the group’s members just two months ago. But the video doesn’t lie, and it depicts Diaz only a few feet away from Miami Proud Boys leader Enrique Tarrio when he yelled: “Open up! It’s some Proud Boys in here.”"

Third police officer sentenced to prison for framing black males  10/19/2018 Nation of Change: "After pleading guilty to framing innocent black men and punching a handcuffed suspect in the face, a third Florida police officer was sentenced Thursday to 27 months in prison for conspiracy to deprive a person of his civil rights and deprivation of civil rights under color of law. Two other officers have been sentenced to one year in federal prison, while their former police chief awaits sentencing next month."

Why Young Men of Color Are Joining White-Supremacist Groups  9/4/2018 Daily Beast: "Tarrio, who identifies as Afro-Cuban, is president of the Miami chapter of the Proud Boys, who call themselves “Western chauvinists,” and “regularly spout white-nationalist memes and maintain affiliations with known extremists,” according to the Southern Poverty Law Center."

Here Are 5 of the Most Disturbing Facts About Florida Republican Gubernatorial Candidate Ron DeSantis  8/30/2018 Alternet: "The Florida gubernatorial race could become a referendum on Sanders’ ideas versus Trump’s ideas, and DeSantis is way beyond conservative—he is extreme."

After surprise primary victory, can Andrew Gillum win the Florida governor's race?  8/30/2018 NBC: "But the state remains divided stubbornly 50-50, which means Democrats need to both energize their base and win over swing voters, said Steve Schale, a Florida Democratic strategist who backed Graham. “It's still a state that is very evenly balanced,” said Schale — who, like Graham, quickly got behind Gillum. “Democrats that think Andrew's not going to be able to connect with suburban white women, and typical swing voters aren't paying attention to what's happening around the country.”"

Black lawmaker says Miami Democrats have ‘lynched’ him in primary  8/16/2018 Miami Herald: "Hardemon, in interviews with the Miami Herald, said his party doesn’t like black people — “especially black men” — and claimed the chairman of the Miami-Dade Democrats recruited a Haitian-American candidate to boot him from office. This week, Hardemon went one step further, lobbing a racial accusation during a meeting of Democratic leaders in Doral. “It’s surprising to be lynched from the Democratic Party,” Hardemon said from a stage, standing next to Chairman Juan Cuba."

Miami Congressman Diaz-Balart Posts Photo With Alt-Right "Proud Boy"  8/10/2018 Miami New Times: "The Proud Boy who met with Diaz-Balart describes himself online as a military veteran and National Rifle Association "certified pistol instructor." He's repeatedly taken photographs with Miami-Dade County Republican Party members and appears to be involved with Carla Spalding's campaign for Florida's 23rd Congressional District, a seat currently occupied by Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Spalding has been endorsed by Roger Stone and has appeared on InfoWars, so it's perhaps not surprising that her campaign seems to include a Proud Boy, as well."

Cops, courts in Miami-Dade harsher on blacks. New study details stark racial disparities.  7/19/2018 Miami Herald: "No group in Miami-Dade County gets treated more harshly in the criminal justice system than blacks, according to a joint study released Thursday by the American Civil Liberties Union and University of Miami. Researchers, who analyzed five years of data between 2010 and 2015, found stark differences across the board."

A conversation about racism in Miami should include all groups – not just Cubans  6/2/2018 Miami Herald: "In my life — and in 38 years as a journalist covering every topic in the book in South Florida — I've witnessed racist and prejudiced words and acts from members of every group in our community. Yet the flurry of outrage and calls for conversation seem to happen only when the offender is Cuban or Cuban-American." [Cuban privilege!]

Afro-Latinos Say Miami Blackface Play Is Part Of Bigger Problem With Racism In Latino Communities  5/29/2018 WLRN: "And supporters of the play kept telling her this was tradition, but Afro-Latinos say this is bigger than a play. For them, it's part of larger problem in Latino communities, where blackness is demonized and deemed inferior through art, entertainment and everyday conversations."

This Miami parody features an actress in blackface and the audience 'loves it'  5/19/2018 Miami Herald: "A popular Spanish-language theater near Miami’s Little Havana neighborhood has been entertaining its audiences for months with a parody that would spur outrage in many other cities. One of the leading actors in the play performs in blackface. The response from most of this audience: applause and laughter. “It has been a hit and no one has complained ... on the contrary, she is one of the favorites," said Marisol Correa, who oversees the venue where the play is showing. “The character is typical of the Cuban theater, the negrito cubano, but the person is never discriminated.”"

Publix bankrolling the campaign of Florida GOP Adam Putnam  5/17/2018 Ybor City Stogie: "Latinos who shop at Publix - Check this out… ----- Its heirs and past and present leaders are bankrolling the campaign of Agriculture Commissioner Adam Putnam at unprecedented levels. ----- Putnam is a vocal supporter of Trump’s vitriolic anti-immigrant policies, and while he served in Congress before Trump existed, he cast anti-minority votes. ----- His voting record clearly shows he’s all about suppressing the vote of minorities who are U.S. citizens."

Justice for Keegan Von Roberts  3/5/2018 AVAAZ: Petition with a good explanation - "The state of Florida is attempting to justify his murder with this law all due to a small part of his car being parked on the sidewalk. His murderer lives all the way across the street. We wont let the state brush this under the rug all because they don't have time or do not want to deal with it. If your mindset is where all of ours is after reading this we ask that you please sign this petition and share as we all just want "JUSTICE FOR KEEGAN"."

Estate of Keegan Roberts v. Michael Centanni Evidence Locker  3/5/2018 John M Philips Esq: Contains numerous call recordings and statements by Keegan Von Roberts' murderer, the white supremacist Centanni.

Manolín: "Vivimos en EE.UU. y le estamos muy agradecidos pero no hay por qué callar"  2/16/2018 Cibercuba: "Manolín, El médico de la salsa, ha publicado un texto en su perfil de Facebook a propósito del tiroteo en una escuela secundaria de Broward, el pasado 14 de febrero, en el que murieron 17 personas y otras 15 resultaron heridas. Más que aludir directamente a la tragedia, el músico cubano ha ido a la que considera la causa principal, el gran problema de origen: la venta de armas."

Miami Latinos Have Avoided Electing African American County Mayors, But That Could Finally Change  1/29/2018 Remezcla: "In 1983, Puerto Rican Miami Mayor Maurice Ferrer won his sixth consecutive two-year term against Cuban-born Xavier Suarez after a campaign that began to uncover the growing tensions between Miami’s Cuban majority and the Black minority. Many Black voters campaigned for Ferrer, resentful of the “Cuban takeover” of the city. Suarez’s supporters, in turn, were found holding signs that simply urged, “Cubans, vote Cuban.” As Luke wrote, only one Black county mayoral candidate has gotten a close chance at the seat: Arthur Teele, Jr. in 1995. Teele won a majority of the Black vote, but barely gained any Latino neighborhoods, while his opponent, Cuban born Alex Penelas, garnered 90 percent of the Latino vote come election day."

TRES VIUDAS EN UN CRUCERO llega a la Sala Catarsis de Miami  1/25/2018 YouTube: "Tres viudas que viven que en el mismo Condominio en Hialeah, deciden tomar un crucero por el Caribe. Lo que nadie imagina, es lo que les ocurre mientras lo planeaban, y después que regresan del viaje. En esta comedia le aseguramos una risa continua y una diversion constante . Más info en" [Con una negrita en blackface…]

Hispanic Voters Will Never Elect a Black Miami-Dade County Mayor  1/22/2018 Miami New Times: "When he was seeking reelection in 2012, Gimenez showed up at every rally and black church to drum up endorsements. Though the black vote can push a candidate over the top in a countywide election, we somehow always select the best Cuban candidate. And once the Cuban candidate wins, he tosses the African-American community into the garbage. All we get in return is a giant F-you."

Black Floridians' Burden: the Cuban Invasiontop

In 1959, "white" Cubans started emigrating to Miami on a massive scale and pushed aside the then thriving Black American and Bahamian communities, who many still remember had built Miami. Black jobs and neighborhoods were taken over by the federally financed refugees while Blacks were relegated to Overtown, Liberty City, and Opa-Locka, among others.  Until then Overtown in particular had a rich history and was called the Harlem of the South, it is no longer, though that is likely due to the Feds passing I-95 through there. Overall, there should be a good reparations case against the Federal Government for this ethnic cleansing that started only 60 years ago.

Cubans coming to Miami continued to be mostly of Ibero-Spanish origin until Mariel in 1980 and the balseros who followed. Even then, many Black Cubans blended in with Black Americans or moved to New Jersey and New York, rejected by their white Cuban counterparts. This was recently referenced in the Academy Award winning film, Moonlight: “Lotta black folks in Cuba but you wouldn’t know it from being here [in Miami].” (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). This same article references a 2016 book, Miami’s Forgotten Cubans  by Alan A. Aja, which is one of the few studies of AfroCubans in Miami.

From the start of the Cuban invasion, the two wealthiest and most important Cuban American families, the Bacardis and the Fanjuls, who own Domino Sugar, funded terrorist groups such as Alpha 66 that attacked Cuba repeatedly and killed over 3,000 civilians. They form the exiled plantocracy, complete with their stable of politicians: the Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio and their cohorts.

Throughout this process, many Black Americans were killed every year by Florida police, whose officers were increasingly Cuban Americans or Latinos.

In 1990, the Miami City Commission rescinded a proclamation welcoming Nelson Mandela to the city during his tour of the U.S. after his release from prison in South Africa. The city's Cuban-American mayor and four other Cuban-American mayors from the area publicly criticized Mandela for not denouncing human rights violations in Cuba. Of course they ignored the fact that Mandela was out of jail because of the Cuban victory in Southern Africa. The response from Black Miami, then 21% of Miami's 359,000 inhabitants, was swift: they declared a national boycott that cost Miami anywhere from $40 million to $3 billion in lost revenue and forced a settlement 3 years later.

As more and more balseros or raft people poured in from Cuba throughout the 90's, US intel agencies took notice that many were Black and sent out memos to their Cuban American client organizations to start integrating Black Cubans in a classic imperial divide and conquer approach. CIA agent Jose Basulto took the lead and trained his people in nonviolent protests at the Martin Luther King Institute (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Having devastated Black Miami, the exiled Cuban plantocracy appropriated US Civil Rights icons in their struggle to regain influence over the now largely Black homeland. The exiles are using race as their main wedge issue to try and destabilize Cuba, and we have been tracking this since at least 2001.

These facts are not in dispute. The real question is why this whole process, especially the ethnic cleansing of Miami, has been so ignored, both in Cuba and the US, and what can be done about that. This ignoring has already caused problems by making the Cuban rap and hip-hop community vulnerable to persuasion and money from Miami, USAID, and NED, leading to needles state repression.

-- Andy Petit

The White Man's Burden (1899)
Rudyard Kipling

Take up the White Man's burden,
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile,
to serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

La carga de los floridanos negros: la invasión cubanatop

En 1959, muchos cubanos "blancos" comenzaron a emigrar a Miami y dejaron de lado a las entonces prósperas comunidades afroamericanas y bahameñas, que se acuerdan bien como habían construido a Miami. Los negros y sus barrios fueron asumidos por los refugiados financiados por el gobierno federal, mientras que los negros fueron relegados a Overtown, Liberty City y Opa-Locka, entre otros. Overtown en particular tiene una historia rica y fue llamado el Harlem del Sur, pero no lo es ahora, aunque esto es mas la culpa del gobierno federal directamente, que paso la autopista I-95 en medio del barrio.  Pero en general, debe haber un buen caso de reparaciones con el gobierno federal por esta limpieza étnica que comenzó hace solo 60 años.

Los cubanos que vinieron a Miami siguieron siendo en gran parte de origen ibero-español hasta la onda de Mariel en 1980 y los balseros que siguieron. Incluso entonces, muchos cubanos negros se mezclaron con negros americanos o se mudaron a Nueva Jersey y Nueva York, rechazados por sus homólogos cubanos blancos. Esto fue recientemente mencionado en la película ganadora del Premio de la Academia, Moonlight: "Mucha gente negra en Cuba, pero no lo sabrías por estar aquí [en Miami]." (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). Este mismo artículo hace referencia a un libro de 2016, Miami's Forgotten Cubans de Alan A. Aja, que es uno de los pocos estudios de los AfroCubanos en Miami.

Desde el comienzo de la invasión cubana, las dos familias cubano-americanas más ricas e importantes, los Bacardis y los Fanjuls, propietarios de Domino Sugar, financiaron grupos terroristas como Alpha 66 que atacaron a Cuba y mataron a más de 3.000 civiles. Ellos forman la plantocracia en el exilio, con su conjunto de políticos: los Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio y sus cohortes.

A lo largo de este proceso, muchos estadounidenses negros fueron asesinados cada año por la policía de la Florida, cuyos oficiales eran cada vez más cubano-americanos o latinos.

En 1990, la Comisión de la Ciudad de Miami rescindió una proclama dando la bienvenida a Nelson Mandela a la ciudad durante su gira por los Estados Unidos después de su liberación de la prisión en Sudáfrica. El alcalde cubano-americano de Miami y otros cuatro alcaldes cubano-americanos de la zona criticaron públicamente a Mandela por no denunciar las violaciones de los derechos humanos en Cuba. Por supuesto, ignoraron el hecho de que Mandela estaba fuera de la cárcel debido a la victoria cubana en el sur de África. La respuesta de Black Miami, entonces el 21% de los 359.000 habitantes de Miami, fue rápida: declararon un boicot nacional que costó a Miami de $40 millones a $3 mil milliones en ingresos perdidos y obligó a un acuerdo 3 años después.

A medida que más y más balseros llegaban de Cuba a lo largo de los años 90, las agencias de inteligencia estadounidenses advirtieron que muchos eran negros y enviaron memorandos a sus organizaciones clientelares cubanas para comenzar a integrar a los cubanos negros en una clásica división imperial. El agente de la CIA, José Basulto, tomó la iniciativa y entrenó a su gente en protestas no violentas en el Instituto Martin Luther King (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Después de haber devastado a Black Miami, la plantocracia cubana exiliada se apropió de los iconos de los Derechos Civiles de los Estados Unidos en su lucha por recuperar la influencia sobre su patria hoy en gran parte negra. Los exiliados están utilizando la raza como su principal problema para tratar de desestabilizar a Cuba, y hemos estado rastreando esto desde al menos 2001.

Estos hechos no están en disputa. La verdadera pregunta es por qué todo este proceso ha sido tan ignorado, tanto en Cuba como en los Estados Unidos, y qué se puede hacer al respecto. Esta ignorancia intencional ya ha causado problemas al hacer que la comunidad de rap y hip-hop cubana sea vulnerable a la persuasión y el dinero de Miami, USAID y NED, lo que lleva a una represión estatal innecesaria.

-- Andy Petit

Excerpt from Back to the Future: African-Americans and Cuba in the Time(s) of Race  12/2/2011 top
Contributions in Black Studies: published in 1994, by Lisa Brock


While there has been substantial scholarship on the U.S. domination of Cuba, projects devoted to uncovering the historical connections between African-Americans and Cuba have been minimal. Aside from Willard Gatewood's several volumes, Johnnetta Cole's short 1977 article on African-American solidarity with Cuba, and Rosemari Mealy's 1992 collection of testimonials on Fidel and Malcolm, there is little else.  In fact, given African-American sentiments concerning the Cuban-American community today, it is difficult for one to believe that any feelings of closeness ever existed.

African-Americans under age forty - like their peers - have come to know Cubans through the opinions and activities of Cuban emigres in Miami. Enraged at the revolution, the latter have been promoted and given political clout by successive U.S. administrations and the national media. Unlike previous Cuban-American populations, Cubans in Florida are largely White and drawn from Cuba's pre-revolutionary elite. Implicated in police brutality and overtly racist politics, they have attained dispropor- tionate power in Florida. 4 Police shootings have incited Blacks in Miami to riot in the section known as Liberty City. The differential treatment of Haitian and Cuban emigres has prompted persistent demonstrations. Haitians, when not turned back, are held for months in detention camps while Cubans often attain political asylum within twenty- four hours.

Tensions peaked in 1990 when Miami mayor Xavier Suarez, a Cuban- American, became the only United States official to refuse to greet African National Congress head Nelson Mandela-whose organization was known for its ties to Cuba- when he visited that city. Mandela had been invited to attend the national convention of the American Federation of State and Municipal Employees, a trade union long active in the anti-apartheid struggle. Mayor Suarez' position so angered the trade unionists and Black residents of Miami that they called for a convention boycott of Miami. The boycott was effectively sustained for three years and called off only when the city's politicians negotiated a deal with prominent Blacks for greater Black empowerment. In addition, the rightist Cuban American National Foundation, through its ties to the Heritage Foundation, became known for its support of right-wing contra wars in southern Africa.

Many African-Americans have only known Cuba through such experiences, creating for them a somewhat muddled assumption that all Cubans are fascist and racist. The 1989 publication of Carlos Moore's Castro, the Blacks and Africa, added fuel to this fire by attacking Fidel Castro and the Cuban revolution as consciously racist. A few prominent African-Americans such as Maya Angelou and St. Clair Drake endorsed the book, which boosted readership in the Black community. Even though Moore's book was of poor scholarship and based more on hearsay than in-depth analysis, to it kneaded an already ethnically and ideologically charged situation. But more importantly, the work has served to whittle away at some of the support base of the Cuban revolution in the Black community. Paradoxically, it has served to relocate some African-Americans to the counter-revolutionary side of the U.S. government on the one hand, and on the other, bolstered the Congressional Black Caucus in its call for an end to the blockade. The CBC has argued that only an end to the United States blockade can better the lives of Black Cubans.


Links/Enlaces top


Police Killings in Florida

The 1923 Rosewood Massacre

South Florida Black Journalists Association

Visit Florida  Where to Learn About Florida's Black History

History of Florida/Modern Florida, 1900-1945, WikiBooks


Dr Marvin Dunn, historian, organizer

Black History In Early Miami

History of Overtown

Liberty Square Rising

Race riots in Miami - Wikipedia

Look Back at Miami’s Vibrant African American and Caribbean Heritage, Miami and Beaches
Black Archives, Miami

The Bahamian Influence on the South Florida Shotgun House, Kisla Foundation
"If the family represents the soul of the community, then the house is the soul's vessel. In West African culture, religious rituals made clear the belief that the traditional clay artifact – the home – contained the soul of the ancestors. In many ways, the simple nature of the shotgun houses – long, straight and narrow – found in Miami and other southern cities, affirms the lives of intimacy that the Bahamian builders' West African ancestors led. The structure of the shotgun house is illustrative of cultures where concepts of personal space suggest a closeness among family members that was uncommon in Western societies."

Miami, 1959 - 1980, USC

Miami History, Soul of America

"The federal government designated Miami to be the point of embarkation and assistance for Cuban immigrants. To use a chess metaphor it was a “Queen” in the Cold War Cuba Policy directed at Russia. Towards America’s Cold War objective, the U.S. government awarded 50 times the amount of business loans and grants to immigrant Cuban businesspersons than to black Miamians in the 1960s. The federal government also persuaded Miami, Dade County and Florida officials to award public service jobs and more home loans to Cuban immigrants. As a result, U.S. government leaders could parade successful Cuban immigrants to Latin America as an example that Democratic-Capitalism works better than Communist-Dictatorship.

Anglo-Americans could own businesses and live anywhere in South Florida. Like the rest of America, many chose new suburban communities with larger homes, new malls and jobs nearby. New freeways to suburban communities were built. The first purpose of the Interstate Highway System was to easily transport military equipment and forces nationwide, so extending I-95 Freeway to Miami was a top priority. Given the unprecedented geo-political-racial-transportation climate, swift policy decisions with bad unintended consequences were inevitable.

Since Black Miami was a Pawn on the chessboard of Cold War Cuba Policy, federal and state governments permitted construction of a major freeway interchange in the heart of economically stable Overtown. The freeway interchange had a dagger-like effect on the black community. With only historic churches remaining as anchors, Overtown became a worn-out husk of its former self. Middleclass residents moved from Overtown to Broward County, points north or out of state. City officials offered the poorest Overtown residents opportunity for public housing in Liberty City. As a unincorporated district without a tax base or political power, despair in the concentrated poverty of Liberty City was palpable.

The federal, state and city government did not develop a comprehensive plan to preserve & enhance black businesses and middleclass homes in and adjacent to Overtown concurrent with Cuban Immigrant assistance. When urbanologists and historians look back on 1959-1990 Miami, they can easily document how Cold War Cuba Policy destabilized Miami’s black community."


A Timeline: Black History in the Miami Valley 1798 to 2001, Dayton Daily News


Orlando Minority Media Outlets

Central Florida Black Journailst Association

Cuba and Florida

The US, the Exiled Plantocracy, and Race

Cuba's Plantocracy: Cuban American business and terrorism

Questions about Black Cubans in Miami,

Ife-Ile Afro-Cuban Dance Company, Miami


AfroCubans in the UStop

Alan A. Aja
Miami’s Forgotten Cubans
Race, Racialization, and the Miami Afro-Cuban Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, 2016

This book explores the reception experiences of post-1958 Afro-Cubans in South Florida in relation to their similarly situated “white” Cuban compatriots. Utilizing interviews, ethnographic observations, and applying Census data analyses, Aja begins not with the more socially diverse 1980 Mariel boatlift, but earlier, documenting that a small number of middle-class Afro-Cuban exiles defied predominant settlement patterns in the 1960 and 70s, attempting to immerse themselves in the newly formed but ultimately racially exclusive “ethnic enclave.” Confronting a local Miami Cuban “white wall” and anti-black Southern racism subsumed within an intra-group “success” myth that equally holds Cubans and other Latin Americans hail from “racial democracies,” black Cubans immigrants and their children, including subsequent waves of arrival and return-migrants, found themselves negotiating the boundaries of being both “black” and “Latino” in the United States.

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Michelle Hay
"I've Been Black In Two Countries": Black Cuban Views on Race in the US, 2009

Hay describes how black Cubans experience racism on two levels. Cuban racism might result in less access for black Cubans to their group's resources, including protection within Cuban enclaves from society-wide discrimination. In society at large, black Cubans are below white Cubans on every socioeconomic indicator. Rejected by their white co-ethnics, black Cubans are welcomed by other groups of African descent. Many hold similar political views as African Americans. Identifying with African Americans neither negatively affects social mobility nor leads to a rejection of mainstream values and norms. Those who identified most with African Americans were college-educated professionals, some of whom credited African American traditions for their achievements, their affirming feeling about blackness, and their ability to negotiate racism.

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Monika Gosin

Primary research interests include: Afro Cuban and other Afro Latino immigration experiences in the U.S.; African American and Latino relations; immigrant incorporation into US society. My current research focuses on the impact of two waves of Cuban immigration, the 1980 Mariel boatlift and the 1994 Balsero crisis, on the African American and Cuban exile communities in Miami. The project also foregrounds the experiences of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., a demographic which grew in the course of these migration waves. This work is the basis for a broader study utilizing data from interviews I previously conducted in Miami, Los Angeles, and Cuba to examine the effect of migration experiences on Afro-Cuban notions of race and identity; experiences which challenge U.S. and Latin American racial and ethnic categories, as well as notions of whiteness, Pan-Africanism, and of Pan-Latinidad.  --

Gosin, Monika. 2017. "A Bitter Diversion: Afro-Cuban Immigrants, Race, and Every day-Life Resistance." Latino Studies.15:4-28.

The Death of “la Reina de la Salsa:” Celia Cruz and the Mythification of the Black Woman

Antonio Lopez George Washington University

Unbecoming Blackness
The Diaspora Cultures of Afro-Cuban America

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In Unbecoming Blackness, Antonio López uncovers an important, otherwise unrecognized century-long archive of literature and performance that reveals Cuban America as a space of overlapping Cuban and African diasporic experiences.

López shows how Afro-Cuban writers and performers in the U.S. align Cuban black and mulatto identities, often subsumed in the mixed-race and postracial Cuban national imaginaries, with the material and symbolic blackness of African Americans and other Afro-Latinas/os. In the works of Alberto O’Farrill, Eusebia Cosme, Rómulo Lachatañeré, and others, Afro-Cubanness articulates the African diasporic experience in ways that deprive negro and mulato configurations of an exclusive link with Cuban nationalism. Instead, what is invoked is an “unbecoming” relationship between Afro-Cubans in the U.S and their domestic black counterparts. The transformations in Cuban racial identity across the hemisphere, represented powerfully in the literary and performance cultures of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., provide the fullest account of a transnational Cuba, one in which the Cuban American emerges as Afro-Cuban-American, and the Latino as Afro-Latino.


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