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Reembarque - Re-embark
Gloria Rolando and Reembarque cast with Haitian and Cuban flags

Haïtians in Cuba

Haïti has a strong presence in Cuba, dating back to the late 1790's after the Haïtian revolution, when many French moved to Cuba and took their kidnapped Africans with them.  From this wave we get the Tumba Francesa and the Haïtian roots music in Cuba.   Haïtian tradition contains a strong strain of Dahomey and Congo, both of which are present in western Cuba as well.  Haïtian Rada is Cuban Arara, the Dahomey tradition.

During the early part of the 1900's, many Haïtiians were brought in to cut sugar cane. In 1921 and again in 1937, when the market for sugar fell, they were simply kicked out and sent home, such was the logic of the neocolonial republic. This period is the subject of a documentary by Cuban film maker Gloria Rolando, Reembarque (Reshipment), for sale on this site.

More recently, Cuba is perhaps the only country to have welcomed so many Haitians fleeing the persecution of the Haitian elites and their savage regimes.  There are reportedly over 300,000 recent arrivals in Cuba.  And Creole, which is still spoken by descendants of the earlier waves, is Cuba's second language, with a Creole radio program in Havana.  There are a number of Haitian roots groups playing in Cuba, including Ban Rrarra and Desandann.

Today, Cuba has several viable Haitian cultural organizations, including Bannzil Kreyol Kiba described in the article below by Susana Hurlich.

The 12th annual Eva Gaspar Festival, 3/2011 El duodécimo festival Eva Gaspar, 3/2011 Eva Gaspar was a leader of the Haitian community in Ciego de Avila.

Cuba y Haití: Aún más próximas Portal Cultural Principe, 03-04-2004

XXIV Caribbean Festival, Feast of Fire, Santiago de Cuba, 7/04. Dedicated to Haiti

 See Cuba in Haiti for reports on Cuban medical professionals and others in Haiti.  

Bannzil Kiba Kreyol and the Kiba Kreyol Festivals

Kiba Kreyol '12

Kiba Kreyol '08

Kiba Kreyol '06

Kiba Keyol '05

Kiba Keyol '04

Kiba Keyol '02

Kiba Keyol '99


Ramón Haití Eduardo

Haitian music groups

Ban Rrarra


La Caridad de Ramón

Haiti in Cuba Newstop

Destaca Tumba Francesa La Caridad de Oriente como tesoro vivo de la cultura cubana  10/17/2018 TV Santiago: "La Sociedad de Tumba Francesa “La Caridad de Oriente”, instituida el 24 de febrero de 1862, con 156 años, posee importantes reconocimientos: la Bandera de la Ciudad Héroe, otorgada por la Asamblea Municipal del Poder Popular, el Premio Nacional de la Cultura Comunitaria 2000 y el Premio Memoria Viva 2004."

Music-Dance Group Enhances Haitian Culture in Cuba  8/22/2018 PL: "Ciego de Avila: A group of 15 women descendants of Haitian immigrants based in this Cuban province, is part of the music-dance group Famzetwal, a faithful defender of the traditions and cultural roots of their ancestors."

Cuba & Haití share fraternal ties  2/6/2018 Granma: "The relations of friendship and mutual respect shared by Cuba and Haiti were emphasized by Paul Harry Guichard, chargé de affaires at the Haitian embassy in Havana, during an interview with Granma. Guichard conveyed his people's thanks for the help provided by Cuban doctors; literacy efforts using the "Yo, sí Puedo" method; and the training of Haitian professionals, in particular doctors; also mentioning the importance of several agreements signed by the two countries to promote economic development in his homeland."

Grandes revoluciones caribeñas: Revolución haitiana y Revolución cubana  1/11/2018 UNEAC: “Se dice la Revolución haitiana o la primera república negra en el mundo, pero no es sólo eso. Hay que analizar que la clase dominante en América Latina siempre ha sido blanca; incluso, siempre se ha querido separar el fenómeno haitiano del latinoamericano. Sin embargo, luego del triunfo de la Revolución cubana y gracias a los intelectuales cubanos es que se ha logrado enfatizar en que Haití representa también el primer país latinoamericano independiente”.

Día del haitiano en Cuba en la Casa de la Diversidad Cultural Camagüeyana  10/1/2017 AfroCubaWeb: por Yoelxy Pilliner López - "Como cierre de la actividad, los pinos nuevos disfrutaron del documental “Reembarque” de la realizadora Gloria Rolando, el cual es un digno homenaje, desde el punto de vista audiovisual, a la herencia y aporte haitiano a la cultura Cubana."

Aponte o la insurrección de los adelantados  3/14/2017 Granma: por Pedro de la Hoz - "Aponte, que poseía instrucción militar y se inspiraba en los ejemplos de los libertadores haitianos Toussaint L’Ouverture, Jean François y Jean Jacques Dessalines, planeó asaltar los cuarteles de la capital. Reticencias de algunos de los conspiradores y la delación de uno de ellos impidieron esas acciones."

Proyectan Puerto Príncipe mío, del cubano Rigoberto López  1/31/2017 La Ventana: "Puerto Príncipe mío, realizado en el año 2000, muestra las condiciones de pobreza, crecimiento urbanístico descontrolado y estado de insalubridad que impera en la capital haitiana, como consecuencia de décadas de dictadura y gobiernos que han desatendido el campo y la ciudad, lo cual ha provocado enormes migraciones internas de la población hacia Puerto Príncipe en búsqueda de alguna forma de subsistencia económica."

La culture haïtienne à l’honneur à Cuba cette semaine  1/23/2017 Loop: "On notera la participation de l'auteure et poète Nancy Morejón, qui récitera l'une de ses œuvres consacrées à Fidel et ses liens avec le peuple haïtien, avec la projection du documentaire « Puerto Príncipe Mio », produit par le réalisateur Rigoberto Lopez, président du Caribbean Film Showcase."

Haitian roots in Cuba  1/20/2017 Granma: "Haitian culture week will take place for the first time in Cuba from January 23-30. The seven day event is being organized by the Havana City Historian’s Office in collaboration with the Haitian Embassy on the island, and will be inaugurated in the capital’s Casa de África."

Walker on Ferrer, 'Freedom's Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution'  11/1/2016 H Net: "In Freedom’s Mirror, Ada Ferrer explores the tensions that underlay two overlapping revolutions on neighboring Caribbean islands at the turn of the nineteenth century: one, a struggle against slavery that culminated in the foundation of the independent nation of Haiti, the other, a “sugar revolution” that entrenched enslavement in Cuba. Ferrer traces the encounters between these two societies on seemingly opposite paths."

Wifredo Lam: the unlikely comeback of the Cuban Picasso  8/31/2016 Telegraph, UK: "Yet Lam’s attitude to this world of ancestral belief remained highly ambivalent. His principle informant on Afro-Cuban culture wasn’t his godmother, the Santeria priestess, but Lydia Cabrera, an upper-class, white anthropologist. In Haiti, he attended a voodoo trance ceremony – not as a “local” who had observed similar rituals as a child, but as part of a group of European intellectuals, including Breton. “A lot of people have assumed we lived in a Santeria environment,” says Eskil Lam. “Nothing could be further from the truth. We had the most atheist upbringing you can imagine. My father lost his faith in any kind of religion in the late Twenties and he never deviated from that.”"

Haiti - Education : 21 Haitian scholars depart for Cuba  8/23/2016 Haiti Libre: "Monday at the National Palace in the framework of bilateral cooperation Haiti-Cuba the de facto President Jocelerme Privert received 21 young scholars (16 medical and 5 in law, engineering and agronomy) from different regions of Haiti, that will leave the country on Tuesday August 23 for Cuba."

Special Feature - Screening & Discussion - Reembarque/Reshipment with Filmmaker Gloria Rolando  6/8/2016 Caribbean Studies Association: in Port au Prince - "Cuban leading documentary filmmaker Gloria Rolando will present and discuss her recently released film “Reembarque/Reshipment” (58 min. In Spanish, with English subtitles). “Reshipment” deals with a forgotten chapter in Cuban history when thousands of Haitian laborers were forcefully repatriated (“reshipped”) to Haiti in the 1930s when they were no longer needed in Cuban sugarcane fields or coffee plantations. The film combines the voices of historians and Haitian witnesses into a powerful tribute to the interwoven destinies of the peoples of Cuba and Haiti. 1) Caribbean migrations, 2) Caribbean development and ideas for sustainable economic integration 3) Caribbean labour and social movements 4) Caribbean intellectual and socio-political movements."

Raúl receives provisional President of Haiti  6/6/2016 Cubadebate: "During the meeting the two leaders reviewed the cooperation Cuba provides this sister country in various sectors, and Raúl reiterated Cuba’s commitment to continue supporting Haiti’s recovery and development. They emphasized the good condition of bilateral relations, and discussed regional as well as international issues of mutual interest."

Otorgan en Camagüey reconocimiento a grupo que rescata tradiciones haitianas  5/24/2016 Cibercuba: "El galardón otorgado al Grupo Caijide, es, a decir de Yoelxy Pilliner López, especialista de la Casa de la Diversidad Cultura de Camagüey, es un reconocimiento a quienes ayudan a "distinguir valores que se han preservado durante años y forman parte del acervo cultural de la población"."

Haitian and Creole Culture in Cuba  3/16/2016 Cuba Journal: "Afro-Cuban filmmaker, Gloria Rolando made a tribute to the Haitians who migrated to Cuba in her documentary film, Reshipment. It is a story of Haitian immigrants to Oriente Provence, Cuba in the early 20th century and their forced repatriation after the sugar market crashed. Rolando explains, “As poor backs and as foreigners, they found themselves in a terrible situation.” Over time, the Haitian culture developed a strong presence in Cuba. Creole, the second most spoken language in Cuba after Spanish, has roots in the Haitians who came to Cuba. Despite discrimination suffered by the Haitians, the Creole language, voodoo and other musical and dance traditions remain in Cuba’s cultural milieu."

Homenaje en Cuba a Tumba Francesa Patrimonio de la Humanidad  12/27/2015 TV Santiago: "Un homenaje a la Tumba Francesa La Caridad de Oriente rindieron en el céntrico teatro Martí artistas de esta ciudad en ocasión de los 12 años como Patrimonio Inmaterial de la Humanidad. Desde el jueves último y hasta hoy se dan cita con el público bailarines y músicos del Ballet Folclórico de Oriente en un espectáculo que incluye bailes populares con ejecuciones de ruedas de casino y salsa, así como un ciclo de carnaval y un diálogo de tambores y conga santiaguera."

“Kamahaití”, un ejemplo de simbiosis cultural  5/30/2015 Jiribilla: por Yoelxy Pilliner López - "… las grandes oleadas de inmigración antillana en Cuba se efectúan en las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX [2], siendo considerable la entrada de haitianos en relación con la de jamaiquinos en calidad de braceros, empleados como fuerza de trabajo por la Suggar Company y la United Fruit Company en el sector azucarero y cafetalero, respectivamente, de la zona oriental del país [3]. Surgen así las llamadas “haitianadas”, como se les denominó despectivamente, a las oleadas que partían desde la costa sur de Haití hacia la costa sudoriental de la isla. Este tráfico de braceros entre Haití y Cuba estuvo controlado por contratistas haitianos que eran utilizados por las compañías norteamericanas, quienes veían en estos hombres y mujeres mano de obra barata y disponible a sus intereses."

Reembarque, una historia no contada  5/30/2015 Jiribilla: Entrevista con Gloria Rolando

Afro-Cuban Filmmaker Brings Little-Known Caribbean History to Light  3/27/2015 Black and Brown News: "During a four-month tour last fall, Rolando visited 19 U.S. cities, screening and discussing Reshipment with audiences from all regions of the country. Rolando found that people were thirsty for knowledge about the fate of other African descendants in the Western hemisphere. “I cannot cover in a one-hour documentary the whole complexity of the history of the Caribbean countries, of our history as black people,” she says, but at least her films give viewers “a little bit.” But Reshipment viewers get more than a glimpse into the lives of the Haitians in Cuba. Through a mix of voices—including historians and living descendants on both islands—and hauntingly beautiful music, the film captures the complexity of the times."

Dark Specters and Black Kingdoms: An interview with historian Ada Ferrer  2/6/2015 Public Archive: "What we had not appreciated in the past is the extent to which the Spanish army on the Saint-Domingue border was actually composed of troops and officers from Cuba. So, in effect, you have men from Cuba dealing with Toussaint Louverture, Jean François, Georges Biassou, and other leaders of the black rebellion. One of the Cuban officers, the Marques de Casa Calvo, who would later be the last Spanish governor of Louisiana, and who owned two sugar plantations and an unknown number of slaves in Havana, actually started a business with the rebels—buying sugar equipment from them and then sending it to Havana. He became the godfather of Jean-François and even flirted and danced with his wife."

Cuba and Haiti Plan to Release Joint Edition of Books in Creole  12/22/2014 Cubarte: "Literary authorities from Cuba and Haiti agreed to release a joint edition of new books in Creole, as part of the initiatives to protect the dialect and bring the nations together. The agreement was a topic of interest of the recently concluded Haitiï's International Book Fair, where Cuba was guest of honor, and showed signs of progress even though there is still lots to do to be consolidated. Zuleica Romay, president of the Cuban Book Institute, told Granma different plans are being developed along with Haiti's National Book Directorate to encourage children to read in Creole."

Meet Gloria Rolando, on tour with her new film ‘Reembarque’ on Haitian farmworkers in Cuba before the Revolution  11/7/2014 SF Bay View: "The title of this documentary is “Reembarque,” and it’s dedicated to the presence of the Haitians in Cuba who arrived at the beginning of the 20th century. They arrived in Cuba because it was a big business to bring a cheap labor force for Cuban industry, and the Haitians were producing for the big Cuban industries at that time. They suffered a lot of exploitation and discrimination, but in time they were told we don’t need them anymore. Because of the crisis of the Cuban economy after the first World War, they decided that they don’t need them and so they sent them back to Haiti. It’s a chapter in human history that is not really well known, but it’s in the memory of many Haitians who were children at that time and they don’t know what happened with their relatives. So it’s time to remember the chapter and to interview the people before we lose this kind of memory of the exploitation and discrimination against people who migrate to another country. It’s a topic that’s important to us. I’m talking about the past and also about the present."

Forgotten history: Gloria Rolando screens film Oct. 13  9/24/2014 Washington University in St Louis: "In the early 20th century, thousands of Haitian laborers worked the coffee plantations and sugarcane fields of Cuba, influencing the island’s music, language and culture. But when the market crashed, in the 1930s, many were expelled — sent back across the Windward Passage in the Caribbean Sea like so many damaged goods. In “Reembarque/Reshipment” (2014), Cuban filmmaker Gloria Rolando revisits this forgotten chapter, recounting both the memories of Haitian families and the discrimination suffered by their Cuban descendants. The result is part Caribbean social history and part homage to the dreams and hardships of the immigrant experience."

Reembarque hacia los orígenes  9/11/2014 Granma: "Danzas, cantos, estampados sobre todo en la interpretación musical del trovador camagüeyano descendiente de haitiano Ebenezer Semé —quien asistió a la prémiere en el cine capitalino 23 y 12— y el coro Dessandan, de Santiago de Cuba, y un toque mágico también conviven en este filme, que no pierde de vista ningún detalle de la idiosincrasia de sus portadores. En el estreno la propia creadora afirmó que “nosotros los que vivimos en la zona occidental no tenemos conciencia de lo importante que es la contribución del haitiano, del jamaicano, del barbadense, no tenemos conciencia de cuán caribeños somos”."

September, a month for documentaries, between homages and traditions  9/7/2014 OnCuba: "Producer Gloria Rolando dealt with the topic of Cuban inheritances and traditions enriched by African immigrants. This successful producer of documentaries is one of the most active filmmakers in the field of documentaries, and has focused her work on the traditions of black Cuban communities. Her powerful speech is in accordance with the dignity of the characters she portraits in her pieces. This month she brings two documentaries Reembarque and Pasajes del corazón y la memoria. The first one lasts 58 minutes and includes the several prestigious historians whose researches add up to the memories of Haitians and their descendants in Cuba. The oldest still recall their families were victims of re-embarking. Therefore, she decided to pay this well-deserved homage to anonymous heroes that intertwined an important passage between two Caribbean peoples: Cuba and Haiti."

En Cuba documental dedicado a la inmigración haitiana  9/5/2014 Radio Reloj: "Reembarque, filme documental de la realizadora Gloria Rolando Casamayor tendrá su premier el próximo día 10 de septiembre en la sala 23 y 12 de la capital cubana. La nueva producciónn del Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos (ICAIC) es un homenaje al pueblo de Haití y a las familias cubanas descendientes del país caribeño."

Estrenarán próxima semana filme documental dedicado a inmigración haitiana a Cuba  9/5/2014 Radio Cadena Agramonte, Camaguey: "El filme documental “Reembarque” de la realizadora Gloria Rolando Casamayor tendrá su premier el próximo día 10 en la sala 23 y 12 de esta capital, y al día siguiente pasará al circuito nacional de estrenos cinematográficos… La directora incorpora las opiniones de prestigiosos historiadores de ambas naciones que junto a los recuerdos de haitianos de aquí y de allá, y de sus descendientes, van conformando la historia del reembarque hacia su tierra de origen, que les fue impuesto a muchos haitianos en Cuba en el año 1937 por una decisión del entonces presidente Ramón Grau San Martín, y que provocó la separación de muchas familias; es una historia de soledad y desarraigo familiar pero a la vez la cinta muestra la permanencia de la cultura haitiana en la Isla hasta nuestros días. “Reembarque” logra, a través de la fotografía de Oscar M. Valdés y de la banda sonora, de Juan Demósthene, conformada por composiciones realizadas para la cinta por Lucía Huergo, interpretaciones del grupo vocal Desandann y otras piezas, reflejar la poesía implícita en la cultura haitiana. Merece destacar el trabajo de edición desarrollado por Fermín Domínguez y el fuerte ritmo de la cinta, que a pesar de tratar un tema histórico mantiene la atención del espectador con la utilización de la música y la superposición de gran variedad de planos que enriquecen la obra desde el punto de vista visual."

Presencia haitiana en Cuba en documental Reembarque  9/3/2014 Radio Habana Cuba: "El filme recrea las vivencias de muchos haitianos que dejaron su país para llegar a Cuba y trabajar en centrales azucareros como mano de obra barata y la repatriación que sufrieron por los gobiernos republicanos en la mayor isla de las Antillas. Gloria Rolando, con 38 años trabajando el tema, dijo a la prensa que durante el período que aborda (de 1915 a 1937), muchas familias cubanas brindaron su apoyo a los perseguidos y los acogieron en sus casas, por lo que se forjó una relación que perdura hasta hoy con la presencia de la cultura haitiana en Cuba."

Estrenarán documental Reembarque sobre migración haitiana a Cuba  9/3/2014 Radio CMBQ: "La más reciente producción documental de la realizadora Gloria Rolando, Reembarque, que indaga sobre la migración haitiana hacia Cuba a principios del siglo pasado, será estrenada desde el próximo 11 de septiembre en salas cubanas de cine. Haití es el país del Caribe que más ha trabajado la cinematografía cubana, por lo que Reembarque vuelve sobre una huella tan fuerte y presente como es el tema de la migración de esta región, específicamente la historia de los braceros antillanos, expresó Rolando."

Caidije  7/18/2014 Casas de Cultura: "Perteneciente a la Comunidad de inmigrantes del Caribe franco-hablante y sus descendientes que conservan su grupo músico-danzario tradicional. Ubicado en el poblado de Minas en la provincia de Camagüey. Fundado en 1926, expresa elementos culturales de la segunda inmigración haitiana, llegada a Cuba en el primer cuarto de siglo XX. Sus presentaciones artísticas se destacan por su reconocimiento en la comunidad como parte de su legado cultural. Cuenta con 25 integrantes y dentro de su repertorio cuentan con géneros como: el merengue, mazun, nagó, Rey gagá y Ceremonia de Ogún."

Nicolás Guillén un viaje a la sociocultura cubana  6/21/2014 Tiempo 21: "La representante de la Cultura Haitiana en Cuba, Maritza Donatien Texidor, resaltó que los estudios de las culturas africanas fueron novedades que impulsaron las vanguardias culturales de esa época, como el poeta Nicolás Guillén, quien encontró un espacio prolífero para su prosa permeada del folklor africano, con una cultura en constante transculturación."

Destacan labor de Cuba por los refugiados  6/20/2014 Radio Habana: "Entre 1991 y 1994 el arribo a la zona oriental de Cuba de cuatro mil 500 haitianos, luego del golpe militar que depuso al presidente Jean Bertrand Aristide, fue también un hecho significativo por el operativo desplegado para la protección y asistencia humanitaria", precisó."

Arte en Matanzas: un puente entre Cuba y Haití  6/16/2014 Girón: "Un posible vínculo para la cooperación entre la provincia cubana de Matanzas y Haití quedó abierto con la inauguración del XV Taller Provincial de Artesanía Tradicional y Utilitaria, que anualmente organiza la Asociación Cubana de Artesanos y Artistas de Cuba (ACAA) y que en esta ocasión contó con la presencia del cónsul del hermano país."

Vocal Desandann: from Cuba, Ambassadors of the Haitian culture  6/5/2014 Cuba Contemporánea: "The recent 18th International trade fair Cubadisco 2014 and the award in the category of Vocal music to its first phonogram produced in Cuba under the auspices of the Colibrí record label Anfom: Vocal Group Desandann (in creole language Anfom means "shaped" and Desandann "descendants"), were the pretext to learn about this distinguished institution of the province of Camaguey. Descendants all of Haitians, from a first to a fourth generation, as a family gets together to rehearse in the House of Emilia Díaz Chávez, Director of that group, in the midst of celebrations this year anniversary 20 of its conformation."

Raúl congratulates renowned dance companies  5/23/2014 Granma: "In messages read by Minister of Culure Julián González during the gala awards ceremony in Santiago de Cuba’s Teatro Martí, Raúl praised the commitment of these two companies to defending the country’s African roots, as the first two folkloric dance and music companies which emerged after the triumph of the Revolution in 1959. “You have made an effort to authentically preserve Afro-Cuban and Caribbean dance traditions for present and future generations. At the same time, you have demonstrated your deep patriotic and revolutionary commitment,” Raúl indicated in his message to the Folclórico de Oriente."

55 AÑOS DEL MOVIMIENTO FOLKLÓRICO CUBANO  5/23/2014 UNEAC: “Seguiremos danzando por Cuba”, dijo Idalberto Bandera, director del Ballet Folklórico Cutumba al recibir este jueves de manos del Ministro de Cultura de Cuba Julián Gonzáles Toledo, el mensajes enviado por el presidente cubano Raúl Castro Ruz a su compañía y a los bailarines del Ballet Folklórico Oriente, quienes celebran los 55 años del movimiento folklórico profesional en Cuba."

Envía Raúl mensajes de felicitación al Ballet Folclórico de Oriente y al Ballet Folclórico Cutumba  5/22/2014 Granma: "El General de Ejército Raúl Castro Ruz, Pri­mer Secretario del Comité Central del Partido y Presidente de los Con­sejos de Estado y de Ministros, envió sendas felicitaciones al Ballet Folclórico de Oriente y al Ballet Fol­clórico Cu­tum­ba, en ocasión del aniversario 55 de la creación de estas reconocidas agrupaciones danzarias. Dadas a conocer por el ministro de Cultura, Julián González, en la gala artística dedicada a la celebración en el Teatro Martí, Raúl resaltó en sus misivas la consagración a la defensa de nuestras raíces de origen africano, de estas primeras agrupaciones de música y danza folclórica surgidas tras el triunfo revolucionario en 1959. stedes se han esforzado por preservar rigurosamente las tradiciones danzarias afrocubanas y caribeñas pa­ra las presentes y futuras generaciones. Al propio tiempo han de­mos­trado un hondo compromiso patriótico y revolucionario”, señaló en la enviada a los integrantes del Folclórico de Oriente. Por su parte, al dirigirse al colectivo del Cutumba expresó: “Ustedes han si­do portadores de un auténtico mensaje de cubanía en múltiples escenarios de nuestro país y del mun­do. En los propios Estados Unidos han librado importantes batallas contra el bloqueo a través del arte, de sus convicciones y posiciones consecuentes”."

Embajador de Haití reconoce solidaridad de Cuba  2/5/2014 Cubadebate 

Naggó  1/28/2014 Casas de Cultura: "El grupo Nagó surge a partir de las primeras organizaciones danzarias creadas por los inmigrantes haitianos donde por un tiempo simplemente fue un grupo para festejar a la manera de la celebraciones de Haití. Estas reuniones tenían sus momentos cumbres en la Semana Santa, donde el grupo salía a visitar otros barrios de asentamientos haitianos que festejaban a la par. Sus puntos de congregación eran guardarrayas, bateyes, 4 caminos y otros lugares, con un propósito común de cantar y bailar a través de los saberes y arraigos traídos por sus inmigrantes."

Pilón del Cauto  1/22/2014 Casas de Cultura: "Agrupación músico danzaria de origen franco haitiano (Vodú), la cual tuvo su origen el 23 de diciembre 1983, como resultado de un trabajo de rescate y revitalización llevado a cabo por un grupo de investigadores de la Casa del Caribe y la Casa de la Cultura Ángel Peralta Téllez. Residen en la Comunidad “Pilón del Cauto”, en Dos Palmas, municipio de Palma Soriano. En 1912 durante el gobierno de José Miguel Gómez las inversiones imperialistas se realizaron en mayor parte en el sector azucarero en Camaguey y Oriente, por lo que es necesario incrementar la mano de obra de obra barata, ese mismo año comienza la inmigración de braceros antillanos y chinos en busca de trabajo, existiendo en la Isla Colonias franceses de café principalmente en el Oriente del país."

Haitian Official Stresses Cuba's Regional Integration Role  1/3/2014 Periodico 26: "Under Cuba's presidency, the Community established relations with the BRICS group of countries, which includes Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Cuba is the door to this region and the bridge between the Caribbean and Latin America, said the Haitian official, who explained that the island has been the chair of the organization as part of a troika that also includes Chile and Costa Rica."

'Reembarque', nuevo documental de la cineasta cubana Gloria Rolando  10/2/2013 Cubainformacion: "La Rolando dijo que antes de ir a Haití visitó la Sierra Maestra, Santiago de Cuba, Holguín y Camagüey donde existieron asentamientos haitianos quienes en la época de la neocolonia trabajaron en compañías norteamericanas y con colonos azucareros como mano de obra barata. “De ellos nos quedaron bailes, la música, pero quiero indagar en la separación familiar acaecida en 1937 cuando fueron familias enteras separadas y muchos enviados de retorno a Haití” agregó la cineasta, quien tiene un largo camino recorrido en documentales que tratan sobre las migraciones hacia la Isla como fue la francesa luego de la revolución haitiana."

'Reembarque', nuevo documental de la cineasta cubana Gloria Rolando  10/2/2013 Cuba Informacion: "La directora de documentales Gloria Rolando rueda actualmente en Haití las locaciones finales de su documental Reembarque que trata sobre la migración de esa isla caribeña hacia Cuba en los años desde 1915 y hasta 1937. La Rolando dijo que antes de ir a Haití visitó la Sierra Maestra, Santiago de Cuba, Holguín y Camagüey donde existieron asentamientos haitianos quienes en la época de la neocolonia trabajaron en compañías norteamericanas y con colonos azucareros como mano de obra barata."

Saint-Domingue (Haití) - Hanau (Alemania) - Angerona (Cuba)  9/1/2013 Kreol Deutchland 

Bonito Patuá  7/24/2013 Casas de Cultura: "Agrupación de estirpe del Caribe insular francófona, Vodú, fundada el 30 de Noviembre del año 1961 en el poblado de Mamanantuabo en Esmeralda, luego se trasladaron al municipio Camagüey en el Reparto Bella-Vista, donde ejecutaban y celebraban sus diversas manifestaciones identitarias, comenzando el proceso de continuidad y transmisión de los inmigrantes a sus familiares y descendientes haitianos a través de sus hábitos, costumbres y tradiciones culturales. Ha portado a diferentes generaciones sus valores culturales: bailes, danzas, arte culinario, artesanal, canciones, toques, vestuarios, entre otros.Se dedican a representar sus sellos y arraigos los fines de semanas, practicando sus preceptos; religiones, bailes, toques y hasta algunas comidas y bebidas afrodisíacas en tardes del Vodú."

111-year-old Haitian admires rooting of his culture in Minas  4/17/2013 Adelante: "With a beautiful white guayabera (traditional Cuban shirt), the elder was present along with Tomás, his tenth son, at the activities that privileged the musical, dance, food and drinks demonstrations from his original nation. This man with enviable health who still tastes the ¨aguardiente¨ (Cuban highly alcoholic beverage), came up to the obelisk of the little town of Cortadera - ten kilometers from Minas - to produce homage to the Haitians massacred there in 1933, for rural guards and of the ancient central Senate."

Will Haitian President Michel Martelly's visit become another missed opportunity?  12/1/2012 AfroCubaWeb: "Cuba on the other hand, cannot in good conscience or with moral convictions hold on to millions of acres of fallow, untilled land, knowing its use can improve the lives of tens of thousands of Haitians, stabilize Cuba food security and restore the viability of our sugar, coffee and cocoa industry, presently on life support. Cuba can erase its debt of gratitude with Haiti and other Caribbean islands, by implementing an orderly migrant workers law, by which tens of thousands of families could enter and work in the country under clear cut regulations, which forbids all unsocial behavior. Prioritizing the purchase of products and produce from our neighboring islands through the development of coastline shipping lines and an increase in human interactions is a past due imperative."

The Fertile Crescent: Haiti, Cuba and Louisiana  11/25/2012 Afropop Worldwide 

Haiti in Cuba - La Caridad de Ramón  7/28/2012 YouTube: ""La Caridad" is the folklore ensemble of a group of people of Haitian descendance living in a village called Ramón. It is located in a zone of coffee cultivation within the municipality of Palma Soriana. The hamlet lies above the banks of the Cauto river, which flows from the Sierra Maestre in the eastern part of Cuba. Like the groups "Gagá de Thompsón" and "Gagá de Barranca", "La Caridad" is a "grupo portador" - a safekeeper of Haitian popular traditions in the Cuban context. The group was founded by the late Tomacito Poll in 1983, and several family members still belong to La Caridad (His son Pochólo -Victor- started another roots-band called "Ibó"). All these bands have links to the Casa del Caribe in Santiago de Cuba. Fundación Interchange and Revista Batey are making an effort to uncover the history of Haitian inmigration and processes of cultural transformation in Cuba. The idea is to publish a book with dvd next year."

ANTÉNOR FIRMIN: UN HAITIANO EXTRAORDINARIO  6/25/2012 UNEAC: "La comisión de racialidad Clotilde Agüero en la sede del comité provincial de la UNEAC propuso un interesante acercamiento a la vida y obra del destacado sociólogo y periodista haitiano Anténor Firmin…"

Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba  6/1/2012 New West Indian Guide: "Today however, the continuation of Haitian customs is no longer linked with isolation, but exactly the opposite: performance troupes, heritage festivals, art exhibitions, the circulation of religious specialists, collaborations with research centers and academia, endorsement by music promoters, and the tourism industry. In socialist Cuba, “folklore” is a valuable resource. Although some Cubans of Haitian descent hide their affiliation, others proudly claim their heritage and this inclination is growing. Policy makers and culture brokers both within the socialist state and internationally have begun to notice, valorize, and promote the arts and traditions of this ethnic subgroup."

From Haiti to Cuba and Back: Haitians’ Experiences of Migration, Labor, and Return, 1900-1940  4/4/2012 University of Pittsburgh: "I show the ways that Haitian men and women navigated the harsh working and living conditions in both Haiti and Cuba by creating and maintaining kinship, commercial, religious, and social networks in sugar plantations, coffee farms, and urban spaces. These links cut across national lines and decisively shaped the conditions under which they moved, labored, and lived in both countries. Reconstructing Haitians’ interactions with other workers outside the gazes of company and state illustrates how those institutions functioned on the ground, questions the extent to which national-level racial ideologies determined local social relationships, and demonstrates how workers’ actions shaped the implementation of migration and trade policies."

An Unorthodox Look at Haiti & Cuba (Part Two)  7/10/2011 Havana Times: "However there are reports by independent bloggers who were there that the people are self-organized, as happened in the U.S. when Katrina hit. They set up camps and spontaneous rescue brigades. And above all there was much caring, unlike the stereotype that the mass media created to impose regimes of law and order, as happened later, but not because of the people but because of the way aid is delivered by the U.S. troops, for example. This teaches us a lot about how racism and authoritarianism use the same logic of contempt toward outside protagonists. That is the argument of authoritarianism: there are barbarian people who must be dealt with by force and strength because if not, they won’t fit in the mold. Sexism works exactly the same. That was what was shown in a wonderful and terrible way after earthquakes in Haiti."

The Caribbean Diaspora from the African Diaspora. The Cuban Chapter  5/30/2011 Cuba Now: by Graciela Chailloux - "The 1929 world crisis represented the end of a frenetic sugar growth in the Island that lost its support in the international market. Unemployment took over the national life, as for Cubans as for foreigners, so the resource at hand was the massive deportation of Haitians and English-speaking West Indians, and the promulgation in 1934 of a law that guaranteed employment in every company to 50% of the Cubans."

The Creole Choir of Cuba – UK tour – January/ February 2011  1/4/2011 Timba Geek: "Prepare to be blown away by The Creole Choir of Cuba – the passionate melodies, wild harmonies and richly textured arrangements of ten inspiring vocalists. This is something new from Cuba, the most original vocal sound to come out of the country in a long while. Desandann, the Choir’s Cuban name, literally means ‘descendents’ and with the songs on their album ‘Tande-La’ (which translates to ‘listen’) they tell the stories of their Haitian ancestors who were brought to Cuba to work in near slave conditions in the sugar and coffee plantations."

La Casa del Caribe felicita a la Tumba Francesa Pompadour Santa Catalina de Ricci por los 105 años de su fundación.  1/2/2011 Casa del Caribe: "Una de las más genuinas expresiones de la huella franco haitiana en nuestro país es, sin asomo de duda, la Tumba Francesa. Al verles actuar resulta siempre motivador cómo una forma de expresión que nació de la necesidad de una burla de los esclavos hacia sus amos, ha devenido en forma de perpetuar algunos de los valores de nuestra cultura popular tradicional."

The Impact of Haiti on Afro-Cuban Racial Consciousness: Black Nationalism and Mobilization  12/18/2010 El mundo es Robert: "While whites invoked Haiti to provoke fear, justify harsher slave codes in Cuba and weaken nationalism, free and enslaved people of African descent used it to positively assert racial pride, unity, and defend abolition throughout the Americas. Thus, Haiti as a symbol and historical agent promoted Afro-Cuban racial consciousness and shaped black perspectives on freedom from the early 19th century to the early 20th century, culminating in the 1912 Oriente province uprising."

Caribbean Film Traveling Festival Holds Avilanian Documentary  12/16/2010 Invasor: "An Avilanian documentary, Una misma raza (the same race), will be on at the Third Caribbean Film Traveling Festival, whose itinerary will include countries of our geographical area like Jamaica, Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, Martinique, Colombia and Venezuela. The Audio-Visual sample by Avilanian filmmaker Jorge Luis Neyra, selected for the festival last February, devotes its 20 minutes to deal with the Eva Gaspar National Afro Caribbean Festival, sponsored by the Joseíto Fernández Culture House in the Primero de Enero municipality of Ciego de Avila. Every year the event is held to revitalize and promote Haitian dance and music and its legacy to the Cuban culture. In addition, he provides a biographical approach to the figure of Eva Gaspar, the Haitian leader of of the Hatian community in the Primero de Enero, and the Nagó music and dance company, that was granted the National Community Culture Prize."

Querido Ayiti, Haití cheri  5/29/2010 Boletin Musica: pagina 92: "Ayiti cheri, voz creóle que versa en español Querido Haití, es el nombre del proyecto que, encauzado por la Casa de las Américas, persigue potenciar, divulgar y promover el patrimonio cultural de ese país desde sus estrechas relaciones con Cuba. De esta forma, artistas e intelectuales cubanos y haitianos devienen copartícipes del largo proceso de recuperación que demanda la hermana nación caribeña, víctima del terremoto ocurrido el pasado 12 de enero."

A Vodú Party for the Gods  4/10/2010 EthnoCuba: By Grete Viddal - "I went up a mountain, near Santiago, to houngan Pablo’s party for the gods. He lives in a place called Pilon del Cauto, near the river Cauto, about two or three (depending on road conditions) hours from Santiago, accessible by jeep, truck, or legs. Guests arrived, some carrying a borrowed mattress to spend the night…"

Médicos cubanos, entre los primeros que asistieron a los haitianos  1/14/2010 CubaDebate 

Segundas Jornadas de Cultura de Haití en homenaje a Martha Jean-Claude, 2009  12/13/2009 AfroCubaWeb: por Manuel Rivero Glean - "Municipio Plaza de la Revolución, en la sede del Proyecto Comunitario "Rincón de los Milagros", en la calle Tulipán s/n, entre Marino y Estancia, Nuevo Vedado, C. de La Habana, entre el viernes 11 y el domingo 13 de diciembre de 2009. El Proyecto Comunitario Rincón de los Milagros, en coordinación con la Dirección Municipal de Cultura, el Consejo Popular de Plaza, la Fundación Martha Jean-Claude, la Comunidad de Haitianos de la Asociación del Caribe y los vecinos de la comunidad, le invitan a participar en esta actividad cultural, como protagonista y espectador."

IV Encuentro de la Cultura Franco-Haitiana en Barrancas  11/30/2009 Case Del Caribe: "La idea de reunir a las agrupaciones de origen haitiano en sus propias comunidades en una suerte de Festival fue apoyada desde sus inicios hace ocho años por la Casa del Caribe y Joel James, su fundador. Hoy en el IV Encuentro de lo más representativo de la cultura franco-haitiana el Director de la Casa del Caribe, Orlando Vergés considera que estas acciones deben tener más respaldo institucional y gubernamental para que se mantenga la tradición: “En realidad es un desafío que los grupos de orígen haitiano se hayan reunido en tres lugares importantes del país, en esta comunidad de Barrancas, empezó por aquí, en Violeta, Ciego de Ávila; y en Cueto para expresar su cultura. Te digo que es un desafío porque en las circunstancias actuales es difícil, aún cuando tienes todos los recursos, reunir a tanta gente. Y ellos lo hacen con tanto amor, con tanto sacrificio, contando con las autoridades locales, y lo hacen bien."

Realizarán Festival de la cultura franco-haitiana  11/17/2009 Granma: "Los elementos más autóctonos de las raíces franco-haitianas en la cultura cubana serán expuestos en el IV Festival dedicado a esta temática, del 20 al 22 próximos. El poblado de Barrancas del municipio santiaguero de Palma Soriano acogerá esta fiesta musical-danzaria, donde se mostrarán las manifestaciones vivas de la haitianidad en Cuba: el creole como forma de comunicación intrafamiliar, los instrumentos tradicionales y su presencia histórica y cultural. La práctica del Gagá, celebración litúrgica, es el pretexto para reverenciar la oralidad, los ritos mágico-religiosos, la cultura culinaria y los bailes a ritmo de tambor -merengue, congó e Ibó- que legaron al ajiaco cultural cubano los inmigrantes de la vecina isla del Caribe."

Cuba - Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage - Proclamation 2003: "La Tumba Francesa"  7/9/2009 UNESCO: published 5/07 - "The dance, song and drumming style known as Tumba Francesa (French Drum) was brought to Cuba by Haitian slaves who were resettled in the island’s eastern regions following the unrest in Haiti during the 1790s. It embodies one of the oldest and most tangible links to the Afro-Haitian heritage of Cuba’s Oriente province and developed from an eighteenth- century fusion of music from Dahomey in West Africa and traditional French dances. After Cuba’s abolition of slavery in 1886 and the resulting migration of former slaves to urban areas in search of work, Tumba Francesa societies emerged in several cities."

Despite Cuba embargo, relief finds a way  7/6/2009 Miami Herald: "This does not concern Dr. Alberto Jones, a Cuban who arrived in Miami during the Mariel boatlift and has been involved with the convoys each year since 1999. ''I'm not afraid to go to jail,'' he said Sunday night at Ham & Eggery restaurant in North Miami Beach, where the truck is parked. Jones' activities mirror those of a growing number of Cuban Americans who question the embargo, which was imposed almost 50 years ago to apply economic pressure on the Cuban dictatorship in the hope of speeding its downfall. As Jones walked around the truck, which is set to join others in Texas later this month, he said American treatment of Cuba disgusts him. ''If you don't see the suffering, you don't feel it,'' he said. ``I saw kids starving and I changed my point of view. I do this [work] in Haiti, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic -- and Cuba. What's the difference?''"

Haiti in Cuba: Vodou, Racism & Domination  6/8/2009 Havana Times: "The Haitians brought the Vodou religion to Cuba. The great anthropologist from Santiago de Cuba, Joel James, who studied that culture, says that hundreds of Haitian workers were massacred and literally thrown into the sea during the period prior to 1959. A strong xenophobia existed against them in Cuba, as well as anti-black racism, leading to events that could be characterized as genocide or ethnocide. They were the last card in that deck, however. The revolutionary triumph of 1959 put an end to such occurrences, although a certain degree of prejudice against the Vodou religion remained. This prejudice still exists, even among some of those who practice other belief systems of African origin."

Homenaje hoy en Cuba a Martha Jean Claude  3/21/2009 PL: "El aniversario 90 del natalicio de la destacada cantante haitiana Martha Jean Claude será conmemorado hoy aquí con una evocación artística a la grandeza de quien fuera genuino exponente del folklore caribeño El programa, organizado por la fundación que lleva su nombre y la embajada de Haití en Cuba, tendrá como sede la Casa de la Amistad e incluye las actuaciones del cantante Pablo Santamaría, la Orquesta Gloria Matancera y los hermanos Santos como pareja de baile. También brindarán su arte la violinista Mabel Serrano, nieta de Martha Jean Claude y una coral infantil que interpretará en creóle canciones de la afamada cantante. El embajador de Haití en Cuba tendrá a su cargo las palabras de apertura y luego un representante de la comunidad de esa nación en la Mayor de las Antillas destacará la fraterna relación de la artista con el pueblo cubano, que le acogió como una más de sus hijas. En el homenaje hará uso de la palabra Richard Mirabal Jean Claude, hijo y presidente de la fundación y se presentará el libro Haití-Cuba, hechos más relevantes, de Diana Cantón, secretaria de la embajada haitiana."

Haitian Medical Students in Cuba  11/28/2008 MEDICC: "Haitian medical students in Cuba—number some 700—study at the Santiago de Cuba “Caribbean campus” of the Latin American Medical School where their academic record is outstanding."

USAID, key weapon in dirty war on Latin America  9/23/2008 Monthly Review: "In Haiti, the USAID is among a number of U.S. agencies that organized, directed and funded Haitian political organizations to provoke the kidnapping and grotesque eviction of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. In Venezuela, the agency was scandalously active in backing and financing the sectors responsible for the coup of April 11, 2002. The uninterrupted squandering of the funds of USAID and its subsidiaries with coup-inspired operations is already in excess of $15 million, via the funding of hundreds of groups and mini-groups aligned with the U.S. embassy. In Bolivia, the USAID program is focused on the country's Balkanization and the funding of violent activities against the authority of the president. A few weeks ago, various farmers' federations and five municipalities in the Cochabamba region expelled agents from this organization after exposing their involvement in plotting a coup d'état."

Letter from Assata on her 60th Birthday Celebration  3/27/2008 HOA: "I am 60 years old and I am proud to be one of those people who stood up against the ruthless, evil, imperialist policies of the U.S. government. In my lifetime I have opposed the war against the Vietnamese people, the illegal contras – war in Nicaragua, the illegal coup in Chile, the invasion of Haiti and of Granada, and every other illegal, immoral and genocidal war the U.S. government has ever waged. I have never been a criminal and I never will be one. I am 60 years old and in spite of government repression, in spite of the media’s lies and distortions, in spite of the U.S, government’s COINTELPRO Program to criminalize and demonize political opponents, I feel proud to count myself as someone who believes in peace and believes in freedom. I am proud to have been a member of the Black Panther Party although the U.S. government continues try to distort history and continues to persecute ex-members of the Black Panther Party. Just recently, the U.S. government has indicted and arrested 8 ex-Black Panthers in a case that was dismissed 30 years ago. The case was dismissed some 30 years ago when it became obvious that the most vicious forms of extreme torture were used to extract false confessions from some of the so-called defendants."

Rosa Parks would be proud  3/11/2007 Uncommon Sense: "American civil rights icon Rosa Parks didn't take any grief from those who would repress her. And neither does the Cuban human rights activist and independent librarian Juan Bermúdez Toranzo. Journalist Roberto Santana Rodríguez, in a story posted at Payo Libre, reports that the 40-year-old Bermúdez — who runs the "Rosa Parks Independent Library" — was arrested as he left the the U.S. Interest Section in Havana on March 5." [Uncommon Sense is the blog of Marc Masferrer, nephew of El Tigre, who spent time in US Federal Penitentiary for attempting to seize Haiti as a base for anti-Castro activities.]

Actuará en Haití el trío cubano Ledema  7/28/2006 Radio Progreso: "El trío Ledema y el percusionista Alexis Velázquez, pertenecientes al catalogo artístico de la Promotora cubana Musical Ignacio Piñeiro, actuarán a partir del 1 de agosto y durante tres meses en cinco ciudades de Haití, para los médicos y maestros cubanos que brindan su colaboración en ese país caribeño. Bajo la dirección del cantante y guitarrista Erdén Hernández Pérez, la agrupación promoverá su más reciente CD ¨ Volveré a ser un caminante¨, que incluye populares piezas como La Culebra, de Obdulio Morales, Siboney, de Ernesto Lecuona, Sublime Ilusión, de Salvador Adams y la que da título al fonograma del propio Hernández. Auspiciado por la Fundación de la cantante haitiana Marta Jean Claude (1919-2001), las presentaciones de los artistas serán por primera vez en Puerto Príncipe, Montrouis, Petion ville, Petit Goave y Port de Paix. Los integrantes de Ledema anteriormente han dejado su huella musical en países del continente africano, europeo y América Latina. Ledema, fundado en 1982, es un apocope de Leonardo, Erden y María, y está reconocido como un grupo vocal e instrumental que fomenta su profesión con un cuidadoso trabajo de voces en las que sobresalen el fuerte temperamento y voz de su solista femenina María Luisa Rabago."

Caribbean Festival of Fire Underway in Cuba  7/3/2006 A C N: "The event --attended by representatives from Mexico, Brazil, Jamaica, Venezuela, Argentina, Haiti, Hungary and Dominican Republic-- consists of activities dedicated to the peoples of the Caribbean States Community (CARICOM)."

Otorgan en Camagüey reconocimiento a grupo que rescata tradiciones haitianas  5/24/2006 Cibercuba: "El galardón otorgado al Grupo Caijide, es, a decir de Yoelxy Pilliner López, especialista de la Casa de la Diversidad Cultura de Camagüey, es un reconocimiento a quienes ayudan a "distinguir valores que se han preservado durante años y forman parte del acervo cultural de la población"."

Cuba laments death of Haitian intellectual  10/12/2004 CNN 

A Plea For Help - Caribbean American Children Foundation  7/24/2004 AfroCubaWeb: "But, the severe financial crisis that Cuba is enduring, have had a negative impact on the spartan living conditions of these students, who urgently needs all of our moral and material support and encouragement. In order for us to clearly understand the importance of this project, suffice to say that if those Haitian students that are presently enrolled would successfully graduate, that would mean a 25% increase in Haiti's present physician pool."

Barrancas: huella franco-haitiana en el Caribe  7/8/2004 Jiribilla: "Mantener viva nuestras raíces, no ha sido, ni es nada fácil. Tampoco, transmitir a las nuevas generaciones el mensaje de esta cultura. Eso solo ha sido posible con un poco de amor, fe y unidad entre todos. Con estas tres cosas mezcladas hemos asegurado nuestro relevo". Entrevista con Teresa Martínez, miembro del grupo Barrancas."

Artists from 23 countries at Fire Festival  7/6/2004 Cuba Now: "Around 500 representatives from 23 countries, including Canada and the United States, will participate in the 24th Fire Festival, to take place in Santiago de Cuba, July 3 through 9. The program includes a traditional colloquium, The Caribbean that Binds Us, this time focused on the Haitian Revolution and its repercussion in the country and abroad, as well as workshops to deal with topics related to Franco-Haitian culture. Moreover, a bust of Haitian independence hero Toussaint Louverture will be inaugurated."

Preminencia de Haití en Festival del Caribe en Cuba  6/6/2004 AfroCubaWeb 

Wemilere Festival 2004 in November  5/5/2004 Cubarte Newsletter: "Dedicated to the bicentennial of the independence of Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and late artist Martha Jean-Claude, the Wemilere Festival will take place again in the municipality of Guanabacoa, proving that the conservation of the most authentic values of any culture also preserves the genesis of its identity. The Wemilere International Festival of African Roots will take place November 21-24, 2004 at the legendary Villa de la Asunción de Guanabacoa."

200 Years of U.S. Imperialism Haiti Under Siege  5/1/2004 International Socialist Review: "IN THE U.S., Haiti is portrayed as a world apart: the "poorest country in the western hemisphere"–a place of inexplicable violence and instability, horrible poverty, and scant resources. Seldom are we reminded that this was the first nation after the U.S. to achieve independence, and was the first Black republic–that this is a country with a history not only of repression and violence but also of heroism, resistance, immense human and cultural vitality. Far from being "a world apart," Haiti has from its inception been all too firmly locked into a world system that has exploited, battered, and abused its natural and human resources."

Aristide's removal presents threat to Cuba says report  3/8/2004 Rebelion: "Journalist and French writer Thierry Meyssan has claimed that France and United States agreed in the summer of 2003 to a joint plan to prepare a coup d'etat against the ousted president of Haiti, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, due, among others things, to utilize the country as a base of operations to finish off Fidel Castro "within five months". The other motive was the French reaction to Aristide's decision to demand that Paris refund debt payments contracted with the former colony throughout the XIX century."

Cuba trying to head off mass exodus from Haiti  2/19/2004 Miami Herald 

Presenta nueva revista Fundación Martha Jean-Claude  1/10/2004 Tribuna de la Habana: Martha was a famous Haitian actor who lived in Cuba - "El primer número de la revista Bouyon de la fundación cultural Martha Jean-Claude fue presentado en la sede de la Unión de Escritores de Cuba (UNEAC)con la asistencia de Harold Gramatges, Premio Nacional de Música y Jean-Marie Vaval, secretario de la embajada de Haití en la isla. La publicación cuyo nombre significa ajiaco, en español, tendrá un carácter trimestral y el objetivo de difundir la cultura de Haití por el Caribe. En este primer número, que consta de 10000 ejemplares, aparecen materiales de Harold Gramatges, Nancy Morejón, de la importante cantante que le da nombre a la fundación y de otras personalidades de ese país caribeño, acerca de temas como la independencia haitiana, el créole y el vaudou. En el acto de presentación intervinieron Harolt Gramatges quien hizo anécdotas de su presencia en Haití y Richard Mirabal Jean- Claude presidente de la fundación y director de la revista, quien agradeció a Cuba la impresión de los ejemplares en los talleres de Publicitur."

The Haitian Revolution in Cuba and the Caribbean  11/1/2003 Cuba Now: "The three day workshop (March 3-5) will study subjects such as Slave Resistance and the Cimarron; The influence of the Haitian Revolution in other anti-colonial revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean; Haitian politics and post-abolitionist transitions in the Americas; and Democracy, Participation and Black Emancipation in the post-slavery Caribbean."

Migrant memo focused on Haiti  4/26/2003 Miami Herald: Now the Haitian immigrants are being tagged as hiding Pakistanis and Palestinians among them, while Cuban immigrant escape this latest twist on an old theme.

Cuban music with a Haitian accent  1/23/2003 Toronto Globe & Mail: "Haitian Cubans are no more exempt from the vagaries of politics than anyone else and have their own difficult history to boot, one that includes a legacy of discrimination and suppression of the Creole language at the core of Haitian-Cuban culture. Desandann, whose members are second and third generation (the first wave of Haitian immigrants came to Cuba as slaves of the French fleeing the Haitian revolution in the late 1790s), can and do sing in English, French and Spanish, but mostly in the Creole that marvelously blends the three. The songs they apply it to are both folkloric and popular, from sober spirituals to sensuous dance numbers. Last Tuesday, they did all that and more."

The Miami Connection  1/8/2003 Granma: published 2/18/02 - "ROGER NORIEGA, MEDIOCRE BUT "TRUSTWORTHY" - A man of trust was needed within the Organization of American States. And for such a post, how about the principal Latin American collaborator of semi-retired Jesse Helms, champion of the blockade against the island? It is a fact that Roger Noriega is a mediocre official and has had a disastrous reputation in diplomatic circles for some time now. On the other hand, he does possess verifiable ultra-right convictions in terms of Cuba (and Haiti)."

Desde Haiti  12/29/2002 El Habanero: compendium of articles on Haiti.

Immigrant advocates: Cubans landing shows unfairness of INS policy  11/6/2002 Sun Sentinel, FL: "The landing of a boat load of Cubans in the Florida Keys on Wednesday magnifies complaints that Haitians receive unequal, racist treatment from U.S. immigration officials, immigrant advocates said."

The Murderous Unwanted Cuban Privilege: Cuban vs Haitian Immigration  10/31/2002 AfroCubaWeb: "Had we not politicized our immigration laws by granting Cubans preferential entry and residency prerogatives in order to use this as a destabilization weapon against that country, by creating mass hysteria and inciting the commission of crimes in order to achieve the end goal, we would not find ourselves now attempting to explain the difference between two similar socio-economic effects."

Vodou Roots: A Tribute to Martha Jean-Claude, the Grand Lady of Haitian Song  6/6/2002 NY Transfer: "On June 6, we will honor Haitian singer and actress Martha Jean-Claude, the Grand Lady of Haitian Song, who died last November in Havana. Known as "the daughter of two islands," she was a symbol of the fraternity between Haiti and Cuba, where she lived most of her life and raised four children. Her engaged music inspired Haitians struggling against dictatorship for years. Martha Jean-Claude came to fame in Haiti during the 1940s as an actress and singer, and in 1952 she was imprisoned for publishing a play, "Avrinette," which the regime of Paul Magloire found subversive. She fled to Cuba that year. After the victory of the Cuban Revolution, she stayed in Havana, becoming an ambassador for the Cuban Revolution, Haitian culture, and the anti-Duvalierist struggle, bringing her concerts to many socialist countries as well as playing at schools, Army bases, and official receptions in Cuba."

Festival Cultural Africano en Expocuba  5/25/2002 Cultura, Cuba: "La jornada inaugural contó, además, con el lanzamiento del Poema “El África que observo con mis dedos” del señor Antonio Gonçalves, Agregado Cultural de Angola, un espectáculo de acción plástica donde se integraron el grupo ISADANZA, Tropatrapo y el grupo Obba Areanle; un espectáculo musical a cargo del grupo Batanga Sonoc, y, concluyó la jornada, el grupo folkórico Ojun Degara [un grupo Arara fundado por la familia Baró] de Jovellanos, Matanzas, quien no sólo hizo bailar a los presentes si no que atrajo a numerosas personas que se encontraban en otras áreas del recinto ferial."

A Tribute to Martha Jean-Claude, the Grand Lady of Haitian Song  5/20/2002 NY Transfer News: "On June 6, we will honor Haitian singer and actress Martha Jean-Claude, the Grand Lady of Haitian Song, who died last November in Havana. Known as "the daughter of two islands," she was a symbol of the fraternity between Haiti and Cuba, where she lived most of her life and raised four children. Her engaged music inspired Haitians struggling against dictatorship for years."

Partió hacia Bélgica el Conjunto Artístico Maraguán  5/19/2002 Cultura, Cuba: "Adscrito a la Universidad de Camagüey, el elenco escenificará las obras "Cubanísimo" y "Por los campos de mi Cuba", relativas, respectivamente, a bailes y canciones urbanas y rurales, así como "Jamaica" y "Homenaje", alusivas a expresiones danzario-musicales traídas a la Isla por jamaicanos y haitianos. La agrupación, fundada en 1981, ha actuado igualmente en México, República Dominicana y Paraguay, y acumula más de 30 galardones, entre ellos, el Premio Nacional de la Cultura Comunitaria."

Destaca Fidel Castro labor de médicos cubanos en Haití  2/19/2002 Radio Sancti Spíritus: Cuba's work in Haiti

A faculty of medicine operates in Haiti under Cuban advisory  2/1/2002 AIN, Cuba: "Santiago de Cuba, February 2(ain) A new faculty of medicine was inaugurated in Haiti as part of the colaboration that Cuba is developing in that Caribbean country, one of the poorest in the world. Over two dozens of Cuban professors are working in this institution to accelerate the academic formation of future Haitian medicine professionals. This is the first faculty of some 20 that Cuba will promote in Third World countries. It is sited in the Haitian capital and there some 120 students are receiving their preparation which will last over six years."

Guantánamo embraces an ethnically rich past  1/27/2002 Sun Sentinel, Fort Lauderdale: "The Cuban revolution in 1959 brought an end to these migrations, but to find the Guantánamo of old with its rich ethnic blend just ask for La Loma del Chivo, Goat's Hillock, on the eastern edge of town. There, descendants of the West Indian settlers still cook up saltfish and dumplings and offer them up in perfect English with a sweet island lilt. The red pods of the ackee tree, Jamaica's national tree, peek over concrete walls. And every Saturday at the 96-year-old Tumba Francesa Pompadu, the only remaining Haitian cultural center, Haitian descendants drum out the rhythms of their ancestors' homeland and dance the dances modeled long ago after French favorites like the minuet. "It was a social criticism," said Emiliano Castillo Guzman, 37, one of the Tumba's drummers. "The slaves tried to imitate or mock their masters with these dances. In the beginning their festivals were held in huts on the sugar cane plantations or the coffee plantations."

Officials From Nigeria, Haiti and Cuba to Join Stellar Line Up At Atlanta Confab International Town Hall Meeting to Kick-off State of the Black World Conference  11/26/2001 Black Press USA 

Undesirable Aliens: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism in the Comparison of Haitian and British West Indian Immigrant Workers in Cuba, 1912-1939  3/1/1998 Journal of Social History: "This article examines the intersection of class, race, and culture in attempting to explain the forced repatriation of as many as 38,000 Haitians from Cuba during the 1930s. Using a variety of primary and secondary sources, it explores the related yet diverging experience of Haitian and British West Indian immigrant workers in Cuba between the 1910s and the 1930s. The study challenges the tendency to analyze the histories of black populations exclusively in terms of race, thus ignoring the ethnic and national identities which distinguish different-groups within the African diaspora from one another. The article examines the main differences between the two black immigrant populations in Cuba, including their structural characteristics, the social and religious institutions they formed, the diplomatic representation they received, and the perceptions that native Cubans held toward them. Although all Afro-Caribbean immigrants confronted "conjugated oppression" based on race and class, Haitians in particular faced discrimination based on culture and ethnicity, culminating in mass deportation as economic decline coalesced with a rising Cuban nationalism during the 1930s."

An Unorthodox Look at Haiti and Cuba (I)  11/1/1971 Havana Times: "However, transdomination is not something I invented. I think those who carried it out in Haiti and elsewhere invented it. It is defined as the emergence of a new dominating system after a revolutionary triumph, despite that revolutions are supposedly carried out in order to end oppression and create opportunity, equality, and freedom. However, what often comes after a revolution is a new system of domination, or as Holloway says in the prologue, a worse system. As you said, I am Cuban-Russian, I have ancestors there too. The concept of transdomination arose from questions regarding Stalin’s crimes and all that has happened there since 1917."

Cuba y Haití: Aún más próximastop

Autor: Ileana Gonzáles. 
Fecha de Publicación: 03-04-2004
Portal Cultural Principe, Cuba

HOY quedan pocos haitianos residiendo en Cuba, pero sus descendientes –de varias generaciones- NO han dejado aletargadas sus costumbres, sus ritos religiosos, sus bailes y cantos, su forma de cocinar, todo eso, en fin, que conforma la identidad de un pueblo.

La presencia haitiana en Cuba es particularmente fuerte en Camagüey, donde los emigrantes aportaron su mano de obra a las faenas agrícolas, sobre todo el corte de caña, desde las primeras décadas de este siglo.

Incluso uno de los municipios de esa provincia se llama Haití, y allí existe una estatua del prócer independentista Jean Jacques Dessalines.

La herencia cultural haitiana también se advierte en comunidades de Esmeralda y Sierra de Cubitas.

Kama-Haití: una primera experiencia

Cuando el presidente de Haití, René Preval, visitó la provincia de Camagüey, se sintió sumamente impresionado al constatar cómo sus compatriotas y descendientes mantenían allí, muy vivas, las raíces culturales de su pueblo.

Sugirió entonces la organización de un encuentro que facilitara el intercambio entre representantes de las artes y las letras de los dos países caribeños.

Aquella iniciativa ya tomó cuerpo y, del nueve al catorce de este mes, se desarrollará el evento cultural que ha sido denominado Kama-Haití, y como parte del cual habrá un hermanamiento entre Camagüey y Okay, la región de donde salió un mayor número de haitianos para asentarse en Cuba y, de algún modo, incorporar otro componente a la cultura nacional.

Cultura viva

El Ballet Folclórico de Camagüey, el grupo Desandán y el conjunto artístico "Maraguán" serán algunos de los exponentes por la parte cubana que intervendrán en la gala inaugural del encuentro cultural Kama-Haití, el diez de abril en el teatro Principal de Camagüey.

Emilia Díaz Chávez, vicepresidenta de la Unión Nacional de Escritores y Artistas de Cuba (UNEAC) en esa provincia y organizadora del evento, informó que se espera la visita de artistas e intelectuales haitianos, para ofrecer espectáculos e impartir conferencias sobre la cultura del hermano pueblo.

"Esta será la primera experiencia, y aspiramos a que este tipo de intercambio cultural con Haití, recién nacido, llegue a caracterizar a Camagüey", y tenga en un futuro un alcance regional", precisa la también directora del grupo folclórico "Dessandán".

Creole Language and Culture: Part of Cuba's Cultural Patrimony

by Susana Hurlich, Havana, 21 May 1998top

The first question asked by all Haitians who visit Cuba from outside the country is about Guantanamo, which has been historically the most important region of the country for Haitian residents and descendants - that is, for Creole language and culture. Although no census of Haitians (residents or descendants) in Cuba has been done to date, in the 1980's a group of sociologists from Guantanamo did a study on genealogies of Haitians living in the province. At that time, they estimated that some 45,000 descendants of Haitians and another 4,000 native Haitians were living throughout the province

Today, there are over 40 groups around the country that promote Creole culture, such as the fabulous choral group, "Desandann", which sings traditional Creole songs with a delicacy, harmony and passion that is gripping. Based in Camaguey and recently returned from a tour in New York, "Desandann" members are all descendants of Haitians.

An annual carnival, begun by Haitians and immigrants from Barbados who arrived in Cuba during the nineteenth century, still takes place. Cuba also participates in international festivals dedicated to Haitian culture - in July '94, such a festival was held in Santiago de Cuba.


The richness of Creole as a language comes from three continents: Africa, America and Europe. It is a mixture of Spanish, French and English. Although its history has been little studied, some think it initially developed as a commercial language between Europeans and the indigenous peoples and slaves brought from the Antilles and the Indian Ocean.

Creole language and culture first entered Cuba with the arrival of Haitian immigrants at the start of the nineteenth century. Haiti was a French colony, and the final years of the 1791-1804 Haitian Revolution brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. They came mainly to the east, and especially Guantanamo, where the French later introduced sugar cultivation, constructed sugar refineries and developed coffee plantations. By 1804, some 30,000 French were living in Baracoa and Maisi, the furthest eastern municipalities of the province.

Later, Haitians continued to come to Cuba to work as brazeros (hand workers, from the Spanish word brazo, meaning "arm") in the fields cutting cane. Their living and working conditions were not much better than slavery. Although they planned to return to Haiti, most stayed on in Cuba.

For years, many Haitians and their descendants in Cuba did not identify themselves as such or speak Creole. In the eastern part of the island, many Haitians suffered discrimination. But since1959, this discrimination has stopped.

After Spanish, Creole is the second most-spoken language in Cuba. Over 400,000 Cubans either speak it fluently, understand it but speak with difficulty, or have at least some familiarity with the language. It is mainly in those communities where Haitians and their descendant live that Creole is most spoken. In addition to the eastern provinces, there are also communities in Ciego de Avila and Camaguey provinces where the population still maintains Creole, their mother tongue. Classes in Creole are offered in Guantanamo, Matanzas and the City of Havana. There is a Creole-language radio program.


In February '91, the Association of Haitian Residents and Descendants was formed as a non-governmental socio-cultural organization in Cuba. Its objectives are to unite the Cuban-Haitian community and to recover their traditions, customs and culture. Formed initially as a national organization, provincial affiliate quickly appeared in Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Ciego de Avila and Guantanamo, as well as municipal associations in various locations.

In April '98, Bannzil Kreyol Kiba was officially founded as a cultural institution under the sponsorship of the Caribbean Association of Cuba. Plans are already underway to establish provincial affiliates in Cienfuegos - which has an active Creole theatre group - and Guantanamo. Members include Cubans, Haitians and students in Cuba from Creole-speaking countries. They pay a monthly fee of five pesos.

"The aim of Bannzil Kreyol Kiba is to rediscover and preserve Creole culture in Cuba," explains Hilario Batista Feliz, president of Bannzil. "We want to study and promote Creole culture and language as part of Cuba's national cultural patrimony."

This year's program of activities for Bannzil is ambitious. It includes seminars, courses, competitions, monthly "Creole Afternoons" full of cultural and educational activities, and much more. At the municipal level, many of these activities are done in collaboration with "Poder Popular" (local government structures) and Cultural Centres. The "Kiba Kreyol" musical group, consisting of twelve singers and drummers, has already been formed as part of Bannzil.

Other plans include organizing the "Kiba Kreyol 98" International Festival later this year, creating affiliated groups of Bannzil in other provinces, celebrating "International Day of Creole"(1) around the country, and assisting all groups interested in Creole.

In April of this year, the first Creole library in Cuba was inaugurated. Located in the library of the oldest trades school in the country, the"Fernando Aguado y Rico" Polytechnic Centre in Central Havana, it will provide a home to some of the substantial literature written in Creole.

The library "is an example of the struggle of a people to maintain its language and culture," says Alberto Mendez, deputy director of the National Commission of UNESCO in Cuba, who spoke at the inauguration.

In eastern Cuba, the Association of "Tumba Francesa" (tumba is drum) is another example of the vitality of Creole culture. Located in La Loma de Chivo (Goat Hillock), a part of Guantanamo City with a concentrated presence of Haitian descendants as well as descendants from English-speaking Caribbean islands, Tumba Francesa is a vibrant hub of cultural traditions for residents of the area. Here one finds the rumba - that spontaneous, sensual and playful dance that has its roots in Afro-Cuban culture - as well as traditional Haitian dances.


Dalia Timitoc is one of the many "faces" of the resurgence and vibrancy of Creole culture in Cuba. A singer and song writer, she is the daughter of a Haitian father and Jamaican-descended mother.

"My father was a sugar cane cutter in a sugar central in Monte Verde de Yateras (Guantanamo province)," says Dalia. "In my songs, I am searching for and celebrating roots."

"I'm fanatic about the Caribbean," continues Dalia, "and I sing a bit in Creole."

In addition to singing old Haitian songs, Dalia also sings about nature, women as the saviours of the earth, indigenous Indian peoples, etc. When she sings, she accompanies herself on a special drum which she calls Oluboku ("drum of peace"). Abouta meter long, it hangs around her neck by a strap and tapers down to a point, much like a cone, encircled with several rings of small bells.

"I've had this drum for eighteen years, explains Dalia, "and I'm not sure if it has African or Haitian roots. I'm investigating this."

Growing up in Holguin, Dalia began singing at twelve years of age. She has written books, been in movies, holds a monthly song gathering in her home including a children's choir, and is conducting a research project called "Que no Muera las Raizes" (So that the Roots Don't Die) which involves a compilation of short songs going back to African and Spanish origins.

So that the roots don't die - whether African, Caribbean, European or a rich mixture of all. And at the end of the day, the blend is distinctly Cuban.

(1) Today, eight million people speak Creole worldwide. Because of the importance of this language, in 1979 the 28th of October was declared "International Day of Creole". It is celebrated in all Creole-speaking countries with festivals, workshops, competitions, seminars and cultural activities.


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