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Yoruba - Lukumi

The Lukumi community in Cuba originated with kidnapped Africans from Oyo, Egbado, and other Yoruba areas in Nigeria and Benin. The Regla de Ocha, the orisha religion based in Yoruba culture, has now spread up and down the Americas and beyond.

Ilé Tüntun, a Havana house with an extensive presence in Latin America and Africa - many documents available here

Lazaro Ros, a famous akpwon, yoruba singer, now with the ancestors

Oggun: An Eternal Presence, film by Gloria Rolando on Lazaro Ros

Jesús Pérez and the Transculturation of the Cuban Batá Drum, by Ivor Miller, 2003

Martha Galarraga, singer, akpwon

Proyecto Orunmila, Regla, extensive set of Letra del Año materials

Los Villamil - family in Matanzas with strong lukumi background
Centro Cultural Yoruba "Concha Mocoyu", in the Solar "La California", Havana

Carlota, leader of the 1843 slave rebellion, Triumvirato, Matanzas

John Mason: Babalawo and author

Wande Abimbola, spokesperson and ambassador for the Yorùbá religion in the world

Cabildo Santa Teresa, Matanzas

Cabildo Nilo Nille, Matanzas

La Santería en el ámbito social cubano, Víctor Betancourt Omolófaoró, Yesenia Selier Crespo, 2003

Links/Enlaces top

www.ecured.cu/Portal:Yoruba
 

Articles/Articulos

Cineasta acusa la religión yoruba en Cuba de “machista e ignorante”  10/29/2016 14 y medio: "Tras la clausura de la muestra audiovisual internacional Almacén de la Imagen, celebrada en Camagüey del 26 al 29 de este mes, el director Noel Rodríguez Portuondo se sentía satisfecho de que su documental Iyanifá hubiera tenido una buena acogida por parte del público. Con el tema de la mujer en la religión yoruba, el audiovisual recopila varias entrevistas e imágenes de ceremonias que se muestran por primera vez ante los ojos de muchos espectadores. La obra se adentra en un tema polémico como ha sido la iniciación de mujeres en el Ifaismo o Regla de Ifá. Una realidad que el joven realizador muestra con acierto y detalles."

Activistas recuerdan héroes afrocubanos sin nombre  10/21/2016 IPS: "La actividad, organizada por la Asociación Cultural Yoruba de Cuba, el grupo Anamuto y el Cabildo Ifá Íránlówo, conmemoró los 175 años de la rebelión de esclavos y esclavas yorubas en el Palacio de Aldama, hecho acontecido un día 9 de octubre, explicó el investigador Tato Quiñones."

The Orishas Returned to the Street in Regla  9/13/2016 OnCuba: "According to Angelito, one of the island’s most respected Obba Oriaté, in that last Cabildo held in 1961 the images had to enter before because of an incoming storm. Since then the town of Regla has never again been able to stroll its orishas (Santeria deities) to the rhythm of the batá drums, but this September 9 Saint Barbara and Our Ladies of Mercy, Charity and Regla were again out in the street."

Neo-soul duo Oshun spreads a message of peace through traditional African spirituality  7/13/2016 Fusion: "The 21-year-old D.C. natives behind the band Oshun started making music together in their freshman year at New York University, where Thandiwe studies music and Niambi studies Africana Studies. At first the duo jokingly sang Drake covers, but later formed the neo-soul hip-hop band named after the traditional West African deity, the goddess of fresh waters and mother of womanhood, creativity, love and fertility. The duo embodies Yoruba culture in more than just name. They wear all white to express purity and cover their faces in traditional Yoruba body art."

El misterio de Ibeyi  6/24/2016 Granma: "De hecho el magnetismo que desprenden en vivo es otra de las virtudes de estas gemelas, algo que por fin descubrieron los cubanos el pasado mes de mayo cuando tocaron en la Isla por primera vez durante el festival Mu­sicabana, donde trajeron ese mundo lleno de magia, evocaciones, y luminosa oscuridad que han construido a partir de sus raíces, su trama espiritual y el latido perenne de sus ancestros."

Yimi Konclaze: ¡Eleggua Panda!  5/25/2016 Vistar 

Yoruba Drums and Cuban Batá  5/23/2016 KCRW: "I had my brain seriously stretched by a recent podcast of Afropop Worldwide. It was a superb program about “drum speech”–a fascinating subject that has interested ethnomusicologists for a long time. Ned Sublette writes about it in his masterful study, Cuba and its Music: From the First Drum to the Mambo. He’s part the Afropop Worldwide team. I wanted to share just a few things that I learned from this terrific program on how drums can serve as a surrogate for speech in Africa and Cuba."

Why Beyoncé's Yellow Dress Is So Much More Than A Piece Of Clothing  4/27/2016 Refinery 29: ""[Oshun] has been a victim of abuse, neglect, and loss, which is the reason so many women whom have experienced those actions worship [her]. When she seeks out revenge for those who have hurt her– and her children– she is unpredictable in her methods and temper. She can show herself laughing, dancing and joyous, all while unleashing a wrath on those who cross her. It only makes sense that Beyoncé would allude to Oshun's imagery and personification in an album that is intended to conceptualize a woman's journey of self knowledge and healing, specifically that of a black woman's journey. Oshun symbolizes just that.""

This Beyoncé 'Lemonade' Meaning Theory Involving the African Goddess Oshun Is Mind-Blowing  4/25/2016 MIC: ""Y'all think Beyoncé was just breaking windows, twerking and playing in water. No, she was portraying Oshun, a Yoruba Orisha," Facebook user Tasha Robinson wrote in a post Sunday. "Sensual, sexual, beautiful Goddess [and] deity who is a healer, gives life, growth, luxury, change and prosperity. That was the message of Lemonade. Love, change and prosperity." "

Ancient Text Messages: Batá Drums in a Changing World  2/15/2016 Afropop Worldwide: "In Africa, drums don’t only play rhythms, they send messages. “Ancient Text Messages: Batá Drums in a Changing World” explores an endangered tradition of drum speech in Nigeria, and how that tradition changed and thrived in Cuba, where large numbers of enslaved Yoruba arrived in the 19th century. Producer Ned Sublette speaks with ethnomusicologist Amanda Villepastour, language technician Tunde Adegbola, and drummer Kenneth Schweitzer about how language and music overlap."

Ancient Text Messages: Batá Drums in a Changing World  2/11/2016 Afropop: "In Africa, drums don’t only play rhythms, they send messages. “Ancient Text Messages: Batá Drums in a Changing World” explores an endangered tradition of drum speech in Nigeria, and how that tradition changed and thrived in Cuba, where large numbers of enslaved Yoruba arrived in the 19th century. Producer Ned Sublette speaks with ethnomusicologist Amanda Villepastour, language technician Tunde Adegbola, and drummer Kenneth Schweitzer about how language and music overlap."

Cuban art exhibit opens at Melbourne museum  1/14/2016 Florida Today: with video and discussion of how FIT's Foosaner Museum brought up Gordillo and his paintaings. Plus “Afrocuban Painting,” a lecture by Alejandro de la Fuente, the Robert Woods Bliss Professor of Latin American History and Economics and director of the Afro-Latin American Research Institute at Harvard University. 10:30 a.m. Jan. 16, Harris Community Auditorium at the Foosaner Art Museum. Free."

Modupue Cuba  1/13/2016 Arte Aché: "Increíblemente hace algunos años atrás la Letra del Año dejo de ser privativa de religiosos a nivel de difusión para convertirse en un discurso para todos los cubanos, ya que guiaba y ofrecía una nueva visión de como deberían de pensar y actual millones de cubanos de aquí y de allá. Antes de su nueva forma de transmisión la letra pasaba de mano en mano de los religiosos en volantes, memorias flash o de boca a boca, hasta que su expansión salió del la sede social de la Sociedad Cultural Yoruba para ser divulgada por los grandes medios de difusión masiva del país, prensa plana, digital y televisión."

Aggayú Solá  1/12/2016 Arte Aché: "Aggayú Solá es el Orisha de los desiertos, de la tierra seca y de los ríos enfurecidos. Es el gigante de la Osha, Orisha del fuego, de carácter belicoso y colérico. Es el báculo de Obbatala. Confundido en algunos casos con Aganjú el 6° Alafín de Òyó. Su culto proviene de tierra Arará y Fon. Su nombre proviene del Yorùbá Aginjù Solá (Aginjù: desierto – So:voz – Àlá: Cubrir), literalmente “El que cubre el desierto con su voz”. Es un Orisha que no se coloca a la cabeza en las casas Lukumís, se hace Shangó con oro para Aggayú y en algunas casas hacen Oshún con oro para Aggayú. Se coloca a la cabeza en algunas casas de origen Arará."

Roman Diaz: L’ó dá fún Bàtá Album Release  1/9/2016 Joe's Pub: Jan 12, NY City - "The long-awaited debut album ‘L’ó dá fún Bàtá’, from master percussionist, scholar, composer and living repository of Afro-Cuban music, Roman Diaz, is out on Motéma. ‘L’ó dá fún Bàtá’ CD Release party: Come for a night of spiritually transcendent music in the deepest of Afro-Cuban musical traditions featuring Román Diaz and his batá ensemble with the albums producer and featured performer Pedrito Martínez accompanied by a Yoruba choir."

Cuban Yoruba priests release predictions for 2016  1/3/2016 On Cuba: "The annual predictions and recommendations known as “Letter of the Year” were released by the Cuban Council of Elder Priests of Ifa (Yoruba religion), and the “Miguel Febles Padrón” Letter of the Year Organizing Committee. Under events of social interest, this year’s reading foresees migration waves, increased foreign investment, new agreements and talks between countries, and social unrest fuelled by despair. Three diseases were singled out as particularly dangerous for the year, namely, digestive tract diseases, specifically pancreatic problems; neurological conditions; and epidemics and mass poisoning."

Aqui el que baila paga (Documental)  1/2/2016 Havana Times: "Un análisis, desde el punto de vista de estudiosos y practicantes, del aumento en número de seguidores de la religión Yoruba, a partir de la tesis de que puede ser una práctica muy lucrativa, teniendo en cuenta la cantidad de personas que participan en sus ceremonias de iniciación, entre otros rituales. (Doc. 15 minutos)."

Letra del año 2016 (COMPLETA)  1/2/2016 Negra cubana: "El día 31 de Diciembre del 2015 se reúnen en la sede social de la Sociedad Cultural Yoruba los miembros de la Comisión Organizadora de la Letra del Año Miguel Febles Padrón “Awo Odi Ka” y el Consejo de Mayores de Cuba, para realizar la Ceremonia de Apertura del Año 2016. Esta ceremonia fue Presidida por el Sacerdote de Ifá Ángel Padrón Cárdenas “Awo Baba Eyiobe” y el respaldo de los Sacerdotes de Ifa de todas las familias de Cuba y sus descendientes en el Mundo, sacó La Letra el Sacerdote más pequeño."

Cuba's Santeria priests predict explosive migration, social unrest in 2016  1/2/2016 Reuters: "Priests offering New Year's prophecies from Cuba's Afro-Cuban religion forecast an explosion in migration and social unrest worldwide in 2016. Many on the Caribbean island eagerly wait for guidance from the Santeria religion's annual forecast. Santeria, with roots in West African tradition brought to Cuba by slaves, is practiced by millions of Cubans."

Cuba’s Fascinating Babalú-Ayé Procession Honors African and Catholic Traditions  12/16/2015 Smithsonian: "On December 17, Cubans perform a ritual pilgrimage for a powerful deity that can bring good health or can take it away image: http://thumbs.media.smithsonianmag.com//filer/8a/55/8a551d45-96dc-4f3e-a23a-508bc5f61308/4231206357web.jpg__800x600_q85_crop.jpg Rincón, Cuba On December 17, pilgrims flood the streets of the Cuban town of Rincón, home to a leprosarium and a church dedicated to St. Lazarus. (Alejandro Ernesto/epa/Corbis) By Michael Atwood Mason smithsonian.com December 16, 2015 1.4K 16 1 1 1 1 1.5K 1.4K 16 1 1 1 1.5K After more than 50 years of economic embargo and political brinksmanship, the announcement one year ago of the renewal of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States came as a surprise. Washington, D.C., had been awash in rumors that a change was in the offing, but almost no one guessed at the magnitude of this remarkable development in global geopolitics. For many, particularly Cuban exiles around the world, it was one of those unforgettable historic moments, like the first man on the Moon or the fall of the Berlin Wall. Some called it a miracle, as it occurred on an auspicious day for Cubans. Advertisement Advertisement “Isn’t it amazing that this occurred on December 17,” exclaimed Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar in a piece she wrote for the Washington Post. “It’s a day of great significance to Cubans, when thousands of them make an annual pilgrimage to the shrine of Rincón to mark the feast day of San Lázaro.” Many of my Cuban friends and colleagues told me that this momentous event “had” to take place on this day. Since 1992, I have been visiting Cuba as an ethnographer and researcher of a unique Afro-Cuban tradition that honors both the Catholic St. Lazarus and the African-inspired Babalú-Ayé. (Yes, this is the same Babalú that performer Desi Arnaz sang to in “I Love Lucy.”)" [San Lazaro does not correspond to any catholic saint]

Ibeyi  12/1/2015 On Cuba: "The French-Cuban Ibeyi – daughters of the great Cuban percussionist Miguel Díaz (Angá) and the French-Venezuelan singer Maya Dagnino – have won over great stages, and have gotten vehement praises from the most demanding critics. They sing with the noble intimacy of the ancestors."

Transculturación de la Regla de Osha  11/27/2015 Negra Cubana 

Dia de Reyes with Yesenia Selier and Global Rhythms in Madison Square Park  10/15/2015 YouTube 

Amara Tabor-Smith honors the dead through dance  9/23/2015 SF Gate: "Tabor-Smith’s dance is influenced by her experience as a priest in Lukumí, a branch of the Santeria religion that started in the Caribbean. She says that Mendieta “was a student of indigenous cultures from around the world, with a focus on the orishas or spirits of Santería, Taíno and Mayan mythologies.”

I am La Virgen de la Caridad  8/1/2015 OnCuba: "The beautiful icon of the mother of Christ was spotted floating on the waters of the Bay of Nipe in 1612. After three stormy days, she appeared at dawn on a piece of wood that bore the words “I am the Virgin of Charity.” The men now known as the “three Juans,” who had gone to Nipe in search of salt, picked her up and took her to the village of Barajagua, and years later, she was taken to the parish of El Cobre. She disappeared from both of those sites, and then appeared on top of a hill in El Cobre. One night, a shining brightness was seen on that hill: it was where the Virgin wanted to be."

Santeros cubanos sacarán versión única de Letra del Año a partir de 2016  7/6/2015 Café Fuerte: "Lázaro Cuesta, babalawo fundador y organizador de la Comisión de la Letra del Año, y José Manuel Pérez, presidente de la Asociación Cultural Yoruba de Cuba, ofrecieron una rueda e prensa para anunciar el acuerdo para la letra única y saludar este paso como una consolidación de la comunidad nucleada en torno a los cultos religiosos afrocubanos."

Un akpwón sincero y auténtico  5/16/2015 Jiribilla: "Era una auténtica confluencia de caminos en las que gente de pueblo, portadores folclóricos de enorme sabiduría, como Trinidad Torregosa, Jesús Pérez, Nieves Fresneda, Manuela Alonso, José Oriol, Emilio O’Farrill, y el propio Lázaro, hallaron una plataforma para encauzar escénica y musicalmente talentos que de otra manera hubieran sido minimizados."

Voz de mágica raíz  5/16/2015 Jiribilla: "Que se deje oír entonces todo el pesar y toda la alegría de esa larga historia negra que también nos arma y nos cuida. Que otra vez nos cuente de sus dioses, de su luz y su monte, de sus mitos de altar y manigua, en ese todo mezclado que somos. Y que toda esa mágica raíz, se oiga en la voz nuestra del maestro Lázaro Ross."

Awa-Ni-Ye  5/16/2015 Jiribilla: por Natalia Bolívar - "Para los cubanos, es y será siempre, la voz por excelencia, salida del corazón de la selva africana, el mejor akpwón del rico y ancestral folclore cubano, quien nos entonó sus melodías con sonoridad inigualable, por su calidad y fortaleza. Cuando se habla de la voz más fiel de los orishas, sólo hay un nombre: Lázaro Ross."

“Debemos recuperar no solo la memoria, sino también el olvido”  5/16/2015 Jiribilla: Entrevista con Rogelio Martínez Furé sobre Lazaro Ross - "¿Existe algún momento que recuerde con especial agrado del tiempo que trabajaron juntos? Cuando fuimos a Bagdad en 1988. Era una ciudad preciosa. Estábamos almorzando en el Ishtar Sheraton, un hotel de lujo, y empieza a sonar el Concierto de Aranjuez. Lázaro se desconectó de una forma que dejó de comer, se fue de momento, se quedó y desapareció su espíritu atrás de la música. Y yo pensaba: si te viera la gente que cree que tú nada más eres cantor de santería y de tambor batá… Qué tonta es la mayoría que no profundiza en las identidades."

Más que el akpwón mayor: el hombre  5/16/2015 Jiribilla: "Porque para Ros cantar desde niño, le trajo sus ventajas, complementadas junto a las enseñanzas de los mayores. Ya de grande, sus constantes viajes a Calimete, Perico, Colón, Jagüey Grande, Carlos Rojas y otros pueblos de Matanzas, le nutrieron aún más en pos de dominar “el difícil dialecto”, como declaró en cierta ocasión. “Para aprender a cantar yoruba hay que tener corazón y querer el canto. Y tener un oído muy fino”, siempre decía."

La danza en la religión afrocubana Regla de Ocha-Ifá (+vídeo)  5/16/2015 Negra Cubana: "Uno de los legados fundamentales de Cuba a la cultura universal ha sido la música y consiguientemente la danza. Por ello comenzaremos esta serie de trabajos con las expresiones musicales y danzarias que tienen lugar dentro del ámbito de la Regla de Ocha-Ifá o Santería, una religión afrocubana de trascendencia no solo espiritual sino además portadora de tradiciones y costumbres definitorias en la identidad nacional."

«Es importante conocer el pasado de la religión»  5/10/2015 Diario de Cuba: "Raufe Rafael Montalván Herrera es Educador Popular, graduado del Centro Martin Luther King Jr, desde 2005. Realizó estudios Bíblicos y Teológicos desde 2006 hasta 2010. Ha ofrecido conferencias sobre el cuidado del medio ambiente y el respeto a la vida desde la religión yoruba, en el "VII Encuentro Internacional de Estudios Socioreligiosos" y otros eventos. Al final de su conferencia en el Festival Love in 2014, el investigador cubano Tomás Fernández Robaina, practicante de la religión yoruba, lo calificó como el Martín Lutero de esa religión."

La danza en la religión afrocubana Regla de Ocha-Ifá  5/3/2015 Global Voices: por Sandra Abd'Allah-Alvarez Ramírez

Yesenia Selier y Cafe da Silva  5/1/2015 YouTube 

Yoruban twins to perform in Minneapolis  3/30/2015 MPR News: "Lisa-Kainde Diaz and Naomi Diaz of French-Cuban musical duo Ibeyi perform."

Ibeyi (full concert) - Live @ Les Inrocks Philips  2/19/2015 YouTube - Culture Box: 35 min

Interviews from Havana - African heritage in Cuba  1/28/2015 teleSUR English: 24 min - "The Cuban nation is a fusion of blacks and whites, European immigrants and African slaves and their respective descendants. Today, it is often difficult to determine whether a Cuban is black or white. In recent years there has been a surge of interest in black Cubans and the African influence in the formation of the Cuban nation. In today's program, host Cristina Escobar interviews documentary filmmaker Gloria Rolando of the Yoruba Cultural Association about the African heritage in Cuba, Afro-Cuban religions, and her own work in producing documentaries on these topics. teleSUR"

Interviews from Havana - Blacks in Cuba  1/28/2015 teleSUR English: 24 min - "The Cuban nation is a fusion of blacks and whites, European immigrants and African slaves and their respective descendants. Today, it is often difficult to determine whether a Cuban is black or white. In recent years there has been a surge of interest in black Cubans and the African influence in the formation of the Cuban nation. In today's program, host Cristina Escobar interviews documentary filmmaker Gloria Rolando of the Yoruba Cultural Association about the African heritage in Cuba, Afro-Cuban religions, and her own work in producing documentaries on these topics."

How Santería Seeped Into Latin Music  1/7/2015 NPR: "The Yoruba language is a tonal language," Santos says — that is, speaking a word with a different inflection can give it a different meaning. "So the drums are made to imitate the range of sounds, traditionally, of the voice of the person who commissions the drums to be made."

Letra del año 2015 Asociación Cultural Yoruba de Cuba  1/2/2015 Yusnaby 

Letra del Año para el 2015 de la Asociación Yoruba de Cuba  1/1/2015 CubaDebate 

Women drummers break barriers in Cuba percussion  6/11/2014 South Florida Times: "Instructors were warned that if they taught women, it could cost them a place in a traveling tour or a major performance. Over the years, doors slowly began opening for female drummers – just as women gradually took on greater roles in politics, academics and other areas of Cuban society. Today, experts say, the island is seeing a boom in women percussionists as the generation that first started playing in the 1990s comes into its own and inspires younger talent to follow. “I threw myself into the unknown,” said Eva Despaigne, the 60-year-old director of Obini Bata, Cuba’s first all-female bata orchestra, which takes its name from the Yoruban word for woman. “I have suffered many headaches.”"

Yesenia Fernandez Selier - Performer, Researcher, Teacher  6/1/2014 Callejero Films: "Cuban born performer and scholar, Yesenia Fernandez Selier holds an M.A. in Latin American and Caribbean Studies from NYU. Yesenia’s is the recipient of fellowships from CLASCO and the CUNY Caribbean Exchange Program of Hunter College and recognized for her work preserving Latino heritage by the “Save Latin America Organization”. Her work on Afro Cuban culture, encompassing dance, music and race identity has been published in Cuba, United States and Brazil. Yesenia is an accomplished actress and dancer, and instructor of Cuban and Afro Cuban dance. She founded in 2011 The Ibiono Cultural Association, with Master Afro Cuban Drummer Roman Diaz, focused on the continuity of the Afro Cuban Legacy, in New York City."

Jazz at the Crossroads – The Dance of Eleggua  5/24/2014 Jazz de la Pena: "This week’s show is a new work, El Gallo Mistico, is a celebration of the anniversary of Cuba’s birth as a republic (May 20, 1902), created specifically for the festival by the master percussionist Román Diaz. It’s an interplay between the potent ritual drumming and dance – of the Yoruba, Congo and Caribali cultures – with brilliant improvisational jazz piano of David Virelles, El Gallo Mistico (The Sacred Rooster) represents the exciting synergy between tradition and the avant-garde that has characterized the Negrista and AfroCubanismo movements of the 1920s and ’30s in Cuban culture. And tonight we had an unprecedented occurrence in the history of New York jazz – the presence of Africa, with all its potent magic, when Román Diaz invoked, with chants and drums, the Ireme, the masked, hooded sacred dancer of the Abakua religion. This ritual is the very source of jazz – the state of ecstatic possession, the direct communication with the deities of the West African pantheon – that must never be forgotten."

Influence Yoruba dans la poésie cubaine; Nicolás Guillén et la tradition poétique yoruba  4/4/2014 AfroCubaWeb: de Olabiyi Yai, Actes du XLIIe Congrès International des Américanistes, 2-9 Septembre 1976, Vol. 6, 643-58. Société des Américanistes de Paris.

As Santería grows and evolves, the increasing focus on Africa opens rifts among the sects  3/28/2014 Miami Herald: "Cheryl Grills, a Loyola Marymount University psychology professor and Ifá practitioner, last fall arranged for Elebuibon to visit Havana, where he met with a group of babalawos for an informal two-day conference to talk about the roots of the religion. “It was a wonderful and enriching experience,” Grills said. “The babalawos there were so incredibly appreciative.” The host, a Cuban psychologist and Lukumi practitioner named Dr. William Viera, was so moved that he traveled to Nigeria in December to be initiated. There, Elebuibon bestowed him with the title of Havana’s “Araba,” the highest position a Yoruba traditional priest can earn."

In Memoriam: Katherine Hagedorn, Divine utterances: The performance of Afro-Cuban santería (2001)  2/2/2014 Ethnocuba 

Obiní Batá: Veinte años y mucho más  2/2/2014 Soplo de sueños: "A lo mejor ya es frase vacía cuando decimos que 20 años no es nada, pues es el título de la canción de Gardel lo primero que nos viene a la mente cuando ese número se convierte en aniversario, conmemoración. Pero me apropio de ella en este caso, como muchos, luego de disfrutar durante este fin de semana de dos conciertos de la Compañía Folklórica Obiní Bata dedicados a su vigésimo aniversario."

Dime qué haces y te diré quién eres: Santería, mujeres santeras y representación social de sus funciones  1/1/2014 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul: "El presente estudio es una introducción alanálisis de las desigualdades de género en la religión Santería, Regla Ocha-Ifa, en Cuba. A partir de examen crítico de la representación social que poseen las mujeres de los roles que se les asignan en la Santería se pretende esclarecer las engranajes a través de los cuales las relaciones de poder se sustentan y reproducen en ella."

Things that Cannot Be Seen Any Other Way: The Art of Manuel Mendive  9/2/2013 California African American Museum, Los Angeles: "This exhibition is a newly-produced, career-spanning overview, while emphasizing the artist’s mature work. Whereas cubism and surrealism had been common among his predecessors, Mendive instead incorporates visual elements rooted in Lukumi/Yoruba visual traditions into his painting. The exhibition and publication trace Mendive’s drawing, painting, sculpture, and performances from the early 1960s to the present, giving special focus to discrete themes common across his work, including religion, nationalism, and memory. Mendive’s most significant work, which forms the central conceptual and physical focus of the project, are his 1960s and 1970s series “Yoruba Mythology” and “Middle Passage,” and his performances in the late 1980s, such as “La Vida.”"

Cuba lista para VI Edición del Festival Olorum 2013  9/1/2013 Telesur: "Echemendía añadió que los participantes reflexionarán en torno a la necesidad e importancia de la inclusión de las costumbres de la cultura popular tradicional en las diferentes manifestaciones del arte (teatro, danza, música, cine, literatura, plástica, fotografía), como vía para su amparo y legado generacional. Esta VI edición estará dedicará a la Cultura Yoruba y al Ballet Folklórico de Camagüey, promotor principal del encuentro que busca uimpulsar el arte musical y danzario para lograr un espacio permanente para el desarrollo cultural de esa manifestación."

Lista Cuba para la VI edición del Festival Folklórico Olorum 2013  9/1/2013 PL: "Añadió que los participantes reflexionarán en torno a la necesidad e importancia de la inclusión de las costumbres de la cultura popular tradicional y el folclor en las diferentes manifestaciones del arte (teatro, danza, música, cine, literatura, plástica, fotografía), como vía para su amparo y legado generacional. Esta VI edición estará dedicará a la Cultura Yoruba y al Ballet Folklórico de Camagüey, promotor principal del encuentro que busca promover el arte musical y danzario para lograr un buen nivel de confrontación en la manifestación y crear un espacio permanente para el desarrollo cultural de esa manifestación, y con sus directores y artistas."

ORISHAS: Yoruba dance, music and tradition tell the story of women everywhere  8/31/2013 Examiner: “When I was sixteen years old, a theater director chose me to play the main role in a play called “Virginia and the Orishas.” A play about a young black girl asking the African gods of the Cuban-Yoruba pantheon, the Orishas, to make her white. This bitter experience motivated endless reflections about race and identity that I have developed and shared in research, educational programs and performances in Cuba and the United States for the last twenty years.”

La bailarina, actriz y antropóloga Yesenia Selier presenta su espectáculo 'Orishas' en el Museo Cubano  8/27/2013 Diario de Cuba: "Selier obtuvo una Maestría en Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe en la New York University, y es becaria de CLASCO y del Programa Cultural de Hunter-CUNY. Su trabajo de conservación cultural se ha publicado en Cuba, Estados Unidos y Brasil. En la actualidad es profesora de danza del Center for African and Diaspora Dance."

The Cuban Museum to Present ORISHAS at Koubek Center, 9/7-8  8/16/2013 Broadway World: "A dance-theater performance by New York-based artist Yesenia Selier and her troupe, inspired in the traditions of the female orishas of the Yoruba people of Nigeria, the ancestors of Cuba's Afro-descendant population. ORISHAS uses dance, music and tradition to reflect on the struggles and circumstances of women today. Yesenia Selier's passionate interpretation of Cuban dances is already well-known. She highlights and blends both Iberian and African roots of the island's varied music and dance repertoire. Born in Havana, Selier holds an MA in Latin American and Caribbean Studies from New York University, and is the recipient of fellowships from CLASCO and the CUNY Caribbean Exchange Program of Hunter College."

Semana Santa: una mentira al descubierto en la Santería o Regla de Osha  5/23/2013 Negra Cubana Tenía Que Ser: Por Babalawo Ofunshi Obà Koso - "Mi reflexión se basa en un intercambio con un anciano babalorisa quien, sin respetar mi manera de pensar y actuar, me exigió no trabajar Ifa y cubrir con tela a mi ejército de orishas, simplemente porque era semana santa, lo cual, según este señor, en la tradición cubana es obligatorio. Después de dialogar de manera comprensiva, el anciano me abrazó y su última frase fue: ¨Que rico es tener la oportunidad de despertar a mi edad de 72 años” Mi pregunta es entonces: ¿hasta cuando vamos aceptar las imposiciones de quienes nos colonizaron?, creencias que con el tiempo se hicieron cotidianas y que desvalorizan nuestros ancestros y Orisas, que desde mi punto de vista es seguirle el juego a los que fueron participes directos del gran genocidio trasatlántico."

Sostuvo Díaz-Canel encuentro con miembros de la Asociación Yoruba de Cuba  5/21/2013 Granma: "Es muy importante toda la relación que mantengamos. Aquí reside una parte significativa de nuestra historia, cultura e identidad y podemos seguir acrecentando de manera sostenible el respeto, la unidad y la comprensión", precisó."

Cuba, santería oficial  5/21/2013 Café Fuerte: "La cultura de la pobreza impulsada por el castrismo ha conseguido alienar a buena parte de la población, que se ha entregado con entusiasmo a las prácticas de la Regla de Ocha como si los orishas de fundamento pudieran traer la libertad, la independencia y la riqueza a la isla, cuando no lo han conseguido ni para yorubas o bantúes en la mísera África."

Diaz-Canel visita Asociación Cultural Yoruba de Cuba  5/21/2013 CubaDebate: "Díaz-Canel fue recibido por el presidente de la organización, Antonio Castañeda, y se reunió con varios de sus miembros para conocer además sobre el funcionamiento de esa institución, extendida por todo el territorio nacional."

EL IDIOMA DE SHANGÓ  2/18/2013 UNEAC: "Conocido fundamentalmente por la etnológica y la erótica, dos de las vertientes principales de su obra literaria, aunque no las únicas, el escritor cienfueguero Luis E. Ramírez Cabrera prosigue en Diccionario de la Regla de Osha o Santería (Editorial Mecenas, 2013) la labor de investigación en el primero de los terrenos referidos. Aché mi significa en la doctrina religiosa estudiada Mi palabra. Pues bien, puedo dar Aché mi de que este será el texto más buscado (y en breve agotado, como todos los anteriores del autor, en la provincia) de las novedades traídas por Cienfuegos a la Feria del Libro, al constituir abarcadora pieza sobre el tema."

Obbiní Batá con la bendición de los ancestros  2/7/2013 OnCuba: "Aché Eggun es el nombre del espectáculo que la agrupación femenina de música folclórica Obbiní Batá ofrecerá en la noche del 13 próximo en el capitalino Teatro Mella, en ocasión de sus 18 años de creada. Eva Despaigne, directora del grupo, dijo a OnCuba que la gala estará dedicada a los desaparecidos Mirtha Ocanto, una de sus fundadoras, y el declamador Joel Carreras."

Ministerio religioso Yoruba presenta página de cubanos y entidades deshonestas  7/30/2012 Sunset News: "Ministerio religioso Yoruba presenta página de cubanos y entidades deshonestas y que practican el apartheid social contra las religiones afrocubanas"

La división de la Habana: Territorial Conflict and Cultural Hegemony in the Followers of Oyo Lukumí Religion, 1850s–1920s  7/16/2012 Johns Hopkins: published in 2003 - "The Yoruba presence in the Americas, particularly in Brazil and Cuba, has been the topic of much research in past years. The role of the individuals who molded and guided the new directions taken by these cultural manifestations, however, continues to be virgin terrain. In particular and without doubt, women were the most important contributors to these acculturative processes. The present article examines the influence of three African women and their contribution to the evolution and survival of Lukumi religion in Cuba. In so doing, it brings to the fore other important issues that cast light on the lives of Afro-Cuban women in nineteenth-century Cuba forced to live in a Eurocentric society in which they occupied the lowest rung of the ladder. These issues highlight the hardships and impediments that in many ways all Afro-Cubans had to overcome in their struggle for power and respect--even among members of their own ethnic groups. Eventually, this struggle played an important role in the contributions made by these groups to Cuban culture and society."

Guanabacoa Museum: Cult to the Orishas  7/5/2012 Granma: "Popularly known as the land of the Babalaos (Santería priests), this locality, founded in 1554, was an important settlement, associated with the slave trade which began in the 16th century."

AFRO-CUBA Mystery and Magic of Afro-Cuban Spirituality  7/1/2012 Cuba Absolutely: "Anthony Caronia passion for photography came in the deserts of Qatar, documenting the the Bedouins. Given his own wanderings this seems appropriate, since having been born in Italy he has lived in Malta, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, U.S.A., Cuba, Mexico, and is now based in Brazil. This collection of work from his time in Cuba and the associated text is powerful, moving, evocative and well thoughts out. This is someone who has been there within the mysterious world of Afro-Cuban religion. Ultimately he spent four years researching the book, entering into a magical world where African spirits manifest their presence in everyday Cuban life. There is no sugar coating of his experience but a cool eyed assessment of what it meant for him and an attempt to show the hold that Santeria can exert. This is a magnificent book with beautiful images and a compelling story."

Carlos Aldama’s Life in Batá by Umi Vaughan and Carlos Aldama, Indiana University Press  3/22/2012 EthnoCuba: "Batá identifies both the two-headed, hourglass-shaped drum of the Yoruba people and the culture and style of drumming, singing, and dancing associated with it. This book recounts the life story of Carlos Aldama, one of the masters of the batá drum, and through that story traces the history of batá culture as it traveled from Africa to Cuba and then to the United States. For the enslaved Yoruba, batá rhythms helped sustain the religious and cultural practices of a people that had been torn from its roots. Aldama, as guardian of Afro-Cuban music and as a Santería priest, maintains the link with this tradition forged through his mentor Jesus Pérez (Oba Ilu), who was himself the connection to the preserved oral heritage of the older generation. By sharing his stories, Aldama and his student Umi Vaughan bring to light the techniques and principles of batá in all its aspects and document the tensions of maintaining a tradition between generations and worlds, old and new. The book includes rare photographs and access to downloadable audio tracks."

Living Santeria: Rituals and Experiences in an Afro-Cuban Religion  3/4/2012 Powell's Books: "In 1992 Smithsonian anthropologist Michael Atwood Mason traveled to Cuba for initiation as a priest into the Santería religion. Since then he has created an active oricha “house” and has initiated five others as priests. He is a rare combination: a scholar-practitioner who is equally fluent in his profession and his religion. Interweaving his roles as researcher and priest, Mason explores Santería as a contemporary phenomenon and offers an understanding of its complexity through his own experiences and those of its many practitioners. Balancing deftly between a devotee's account of participation and an anthropologist's theoretical analysis, Living Santería offers an original and insightful understanding of this growing religious tradition."

Letra del Año  1/15/2012 Proyecto Orunmila: Haz click sobre 2012 en cada seccion para mirar la letra de todo los fuentes.

Cuba Babalao Predictions for 2012  1/3/2012 Havana Times: "The osorbo is marked by the ruling sign, the Baba Irete Meyi (the shadow of children with short lives) and the main deity Oya (the “Orisha” or saint of storms and cemeteries). This is accompanied by Oggun, the patron of blacksmiths and the military."

Living Santeria: Rituals and Experiences in an Afro-Cuban Religion by Michael Atwoo Mason  12/1/2011 Powell's Books: "In 1992 Smithsonian anthropologist Michael Atwood Mason traveled to Cuba for initiation as a priest into the Santería religion. Since then he has created an active oricha “house” and has initiated five others as priests. He is a rare combination: a scholar-practitioner who is equally fluent in his profession and his religion. Interweaving his roles as researcher and priest, Mason explores Santería as a contemporary phenomenon and offers an understanding of its complexity through his own experiences and those of its many practitioners. Balancing deftly between a devotee's account of participation and an anthropologist's theoretical analysis, Living Santería offers an original and insightful understanding of this growing religious tradition."

Yemayá bendice el Caribe  8/1/2011 Casa del Caribe: "A Yemayá, dueña y señora de las aguas en el Panteón Yoruba, se le rindió tributo e invocó para la protección y el bienestar de todos los caribeños, este 8 de julio como en cada Festival justo en el encuentro del Río Nima Nima con el mar. A lo ancho del lugar, conocido como Juan González, por primera vez en el Festival, varias religiones de origen común con la madre África, unieron sus cantos, danzas y ritos para la oda a Yemayá. Junto a los tradicionales grupos practicantes de la Regla de Ocha en Santiago de Cuba se hallaban esta vez, los líderes y grupos religiosos de la Regla Bantú, los de la variante cubana del vudú, y del espiritismo."

A Bembé at the Arangos’ Home in Cuba  12/1/2010 Berklee Blogs: "Still running on the adrenaline from their concert at the Museo de Bellas Artes, Berklee’s Interarts Ensemble went directly to a bembé celebrating the Yoruba diety Chango at the home of the musical Arango family. The two percussionist brothers and vocalist sister perform with their band (Hermanos Arango) internationally, and Eugenio, who is known for his work with Irakere and Pablo Milanes, had just performed with the Berklee students at the museum. His brother Feliciano is a pioneer of the timba style of bass in Cuban dance music."

LA FUERZA DE LA PALABRA EN LA TRADICIÓN ORAL YORUBA  10/8/2010 UNEAC: Por: Heriberto Feraudy Espino

DEL TEATRO ENTRE LOS YORUBA  9/8/2010 UNEAC: Por: Heriberto Feraudy Espino

Santeria.el callejon de hamel  7/27/2010 Viaje al Centro de 

Yoruba por Flamenco estreno de la Compañía Flamenca ECOS  7/1/2010 Cuba Escena: "La Compañía Flamenca ECOS, que dirige el primer bailarín y coreógrafo Danny Villalonga, estrenará Yoruba por Flamenco hoy jueves 1ero. de julio a las 7:00 PM en la Sala Teatro del Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. La dirección artística es de la primera bailarina Ana Rosa Meneses y la dirección musical del cantaor Miguel Chávez, ambos han invitado a artistas del Conjunto Folclórico Nacional de Cuba para mostrar los puntos de comunión existentes entre estas dos culturas… Yoruba por Flamenco pretende mostrar la afinidad existente entre la música flamenca y la yoruba. Aunque es la música la gran protagonista del espectáculo, la danza se pasea todo el tiempo durante la puesta, jugando con una imagen influenciada por lo tradicional y lo contemporáneo. Yoruba por Flamenco no intenta enfrentar dos culturas, aspira a mostrar cómo se acoplan con total dulzura, sentimiento y ritmo."

Lucumi Attempt to Bury African Origins of IFA & Orisa Worship  6/18/2010 TRADITIONAL IFA PRACTICE: "Recently we have been rocked and sadden to read about certain group of Oriates in Miami who held a secret conference in order to attempt and pass law towards Traditional Yoruba Religion and all there followers ! Yes i know sounds very crazy , some people in the Lucumi community state that although Lucumi /Santeria religion does come from Africa that lucumi is now to be recognized as its own independent religion . They have the nerve to say that Africans no longer have ASE in what they originally created because of colonialism.This is a disturbing power struggle that has been launched by Ernesto Pichardo and Miguel “Willie” Ramos in order to bury there African roots of IFA Orisa worship."

Obsesión en la Asociación Yoruba  4/13/2010 Negra Cubana 

Sociedad Cultural Yoruba y el Buró Abakuá  1/15/2010 Buscador Mistico 

La furia de Yemayá  12/17/2009 CubaDebate: "En Yoruba. Un acercamiento a nuestras raíces, Heriberto Feraudy Espino refiere una historia, viva aún en la Nigeria de nuestros días, sobre la diosa (o dios) del mar Olokun, cuyo culto se halla asociado en Cuba al de Yemayá: Un mito sobre Olokun relata que estando éste furioso con la humanidad por el desprecio que la misma sentía hacia él intentó destruirla devorando la tierra. Ya había conseguido acabar con buena parte de las personas cuando intervino Obatalá, quien logró atar a Olokun con siete cadenas obligándolo a regresar a su palacio y abandonar tan funesta idea."

Poesía Anónima Africana: presentación de su cuarta edición en el Sábado del Libro  12/12/2009 AfroCubaWeb: "En la mañana del sábado 12 de diciembre y en el tradicional espacio del Sábado del Libro en el Palacio del Segundo Cabo, tuvo lugar el lanzamiento de la cuarta edición de Poesía Anónima Africana. Este valioso libro en dos tomos publicado por la Editorial Arte y Literatura del Instituto Cubano del Libro, forma parte de una extraordinaria colección fruto de las investigaciones del Dr. Rogelio Martínez Furé. Poesía Yoruba(1963), Diwán Africano. Poetas de expresión francesa (1988); Diwán. Poetas de lenguas africanas (1996) y Diwán Africano. Poetas de Expresión portuguesa (2000). Esta valiosa colección constituye la más completa sobre poesía africana publicada en lengua española." [Con galeria de fotos.]

La división de la Habana: Territorial Conflict and Cultural Hegemony in the Followers of Oyo Lukumí Religion, 1850s–1920s  10/4/2009 Cuban Studies, U of Pittsburgh: published 2003 - "The Yoruba presence in the Americas, particularly in Brazil and Cuba, has been the topic of much research in past years. The role of the individuals who molded and guided the new directions taken by these cultural manifestations, however, continues to be virgin terrain. In particular and without doubt, women were the most important contributors to these acculturative processes. The present article examines the influence of three African women and their contribution to the evolution and survival of Lukumí religion in Cuba. In so doing, it brings to the fore other important issues that cast light on the lives of Afro-Cuban women in nineteenth-century Cuba forced to live in a Eurocentric society in which they occupied the lowest rung of the ladder."

Murió Andriol Stevens, destacado líder religioso santiaguero.  9/9/2009 Case Del Caribe: "Falleció este 3 de Septiembre en santiago de Cuba, a la edad de 36 años Andriol Stivens Portuondo, Santero (hijo de Argayú) y Tata Nganga, Sacerdote de la Regla Palo o Regla Conga, líder del Cabildo San Benito de Palermo (Congo Siete Rayos Mundo Lima Acaba Cuento), creado por su padrino y tío, el Sacerdote Mayor (Tata Nkisi Malongo) Vicente Portuondo."

Religious Intolerance: Lessons from Yoruba ‘Paganism’  8/16/2009 Sahara Reporters 

Cuban santeria finds more faithful from afar  8/15/2009 Caribbean Net: published 10/06 - "Tato Quinones, an anthropologist and Geraldine's sponsor, believes santeria has a pull for people from societies that are drenched in stress and extra-strength consumerism. "For more intelligent people, coming here is a journey to finding themselves, and finding nature again," Quinones said. "For others, it is just about superstition or fetishism."

CEREMONIA A YEMAYÁ, LA REINA DE LOS MARES  7/15/2009 Casa del Caribe: "Durante la tarde-noche del día 8 de julio, en la playa Juan González, se realizó la ceremonia mágico-religiosa dedicada a Yemayá, una de las deidades del panteón yoruba que tiene muchos devotos en nuestra Isla. Esta es una de las actividades del Festival del Caribe que suscita gran interés en la comunidad de religiosos e investigadores cubanos y extranjeros. Participaron, entre otras personas, la Sociedad Espiritista de Monte Oscuro “Buscando Luz y Verdad”; las santeras Gladis Reyes y María Isabel Berbes, ambas colaboradoras e investigadoras de la Casa del Caribe; la Dra. Marta Cordiés, africanista y Directora del Centro Cultural Africano “Fernando Ortiz”; el investigador y religioso Agustín La O Montes; Abelardo Larduet, palero e investigador de la Casa del Caribe quien es el Coordinador General del Curso-Taller Internacional de Religiosidad Popular, el investigador Carlos Lloga de la Casa del Caribe, etc."

Huellas yoruba y mayombera  12/22/2008 Bohemia: publicado 21/3/1993 - "El africanista Rogelio Martinez Fure habla de su reencuentro con una de las raices de la cultura cubana en Nigeria."

San lázaro (2006, color, 15 min. 43 seg.)  12/22/2008 CanalDocumentalTV: "Sinopsis: Un acercamiento a la peregrinación que hacen devotos cubanos hasta el santuario de El Rincón, dedicado a San Lázaro, en La Habana. Con música de Cachao, Orishas y Lázaro Ross. Acerca de la Directora: Csilla Szigeti (Hungría). Cineasta. Asistente de dirección de "Las maletas de Tulse Luper: La historia de Moab" (2003); "Drácula" (2002); "Rasputin" (1996), y otros 26 filmes."

LLAMAMIENTO CONTRA EL BLOQUEO De J. ALDAMA Presidente de la Asociación Cultural Yoruba de Cuba en Francia.  12/21/2008 AfroCubaWeb 

Devotos Yorubas reaccionan a inauguración de templo ruso  10/22/2008 Blog al Dia: "Cabe preguntarse finalmente ¿por qué no se han dado pasos para la construcción de un Templo Yoruba en Cuba, que sea el centro de peregrinación y devoción de millones de practicantes de esa religión en Cuba? Llama la atención de que en esta dirección no se adelantan proyectos que reflejen públicamente la rica y extensa diversidad de la sociedad cubana. Los practicantes de estas religiones de origen africano necesitan, y deben trabajar, por lograr este nivel de reconocimiento público."

Natalia Bolívar presenta nueva edición de libro sobre sincretismo religioso  9/22/2008 Cubarte: "La etnóloga cubana Natalia Bolívar, lanzó el libro "Santa Bárbara-Changó, Sincretismo religioso", rodeada de centenares de lectores y amigos que esperaron pacientemente una larga fila para obtener una dedicatoria. Natalia Bolívar, autora de una docena de libros sobre el tema de la santería en Cuba, dijo a Efe que la nueva edición de este título "es importante, tanto para los teólogos como para el pueblo porque está escrito en un lenguaje para que la gente pueda entender la historia de Santa Bárbara".

Priest Fights For Santeria Followers In Coral Gables  9/22/2008 LA Times: "By some estimates there are 100,000 Santeria worshippers in Florida. Some of them, inevitably, had difficulties, and Pichardo did what he could to come to their aid. He began issuing laminated cards "certifying" Santeria priests to help them avoid run-ins with the law. His religion seemed to gain more acceptance. Hialeah Mayor Julio Robaina now calls Pichardo to help mediate the parking, noise and animal issues that arise from Santeria home services." [100,000 and growing]

Conflicts concerning Santeria sacrifices: animal and human; real and imaginary  9/22/2008 Religious Tolerance: published 3/06

Santeros cubanos festejarán cumpleaños de Fidel Castro con rito  8/11/2008 Reuters 

The Yoruba culture survives in Cuba  7/19/2008 Cuba Headlines 

Venezuelans increasingly turn to Santeria for spiritual needs  2/9/2008 Jamaica Gleaner: "The surge in Santeria, which is practised by many in Cuba, can partly be explained by the arrival of thousands of Cuban doctors in Venezuela. President Hugo Chávez has been providing Cuba with subsidised oil in exchange for thousands of physicians who come to the South American country to treat poor people. Santeria priests are also making annual predictions for Venezuelans and issuing warnings - just like Cuban 'santeros' do in Havana. Last month, one group of priests said the gods have indicated that the twice-divorced Chávez would be a more effective leader with a woman at his side. It's a familiar pattern. Santeria has grown in popularity in New York, Miami and Puerto Rico in the past following influxes of Cubans, according to Margarite Fernandez Olmos, a professor at City University of New York who has researched the religion. She said Santeria's popularity also has grown in places "where African-based spirituality becomes a more acceptable social and spiritual option". In overwhelmingly Roman Catholic Venezuela, many shops have sprung up in recent years selling roosters, goats and other animals to be sacrificed in Caracas' working class barrios. In the city's churches, believers can be seen in head-to-toe white, praying to their gods before statues of Catholic saints."

Yoruba Vestiges in Nancy Morejón's Poetry  8/31/2007 Patricia Gonzalez: published in 2005 - "The Cuban Nancy Morejón cannot escape the African Nancy Morejón. Given the rich and complex history of blacks in Cuba, Morejón inherits a wealth of stories, words, images, rhythms, and sounds—all tracing waves back to Africa. My intention in this essay is to bring forward manifestations of Yoruba vestiges in Morejón’s poetry after presenting a brief scenario of the Afro-Cuban presence in Cuba, specifically focused on the participation of Cuban blacks in struggles for independence during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries."

HOW SANTERIA INSPIRES ART IN CUBA  7/31/2007 Culture Kiosque: "In collaboration with Harbourfront Centre's Island Soul, a Caribbean culture festival (3 - 6 August), Toronto's Spence Gallery presents The Way of the Saints: African Symbolism in Cuban Art . On view for only three days, the exhibition is devoted to four Cuban artists who explore how African spirituality has manifested itself and survived in contemporary Latin culture through the practice of Santería."

Des Noirs sorciers aux babalaos - Analyse du paradoxe du rapport à l'Afrique à La Havane  3/16/2007 Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines: "Les Havanais pratiquent, de façon complémentaire, diverses modalités de cultes telles que le spiritisme, le catholicisme « pragmatique », le palo et la santería. Ces deux dernières modalités, désignées par le terme « afro-cubain », ne sont pas appréhendées de la même façon par les universitaires. Le palo, paradigme d'une Afrique honteuse, sauvage, est souvent rejeté dans le champ de la sorcellerie, alors que la santería est présentée comme l'héritière directe d'une Afrique savante, prestigieuse et « traditionnelle ». Cette opposition n'a cours dans la pratique que comme support de stratégies d'affirmations individuelles, le palo étant dans les faits abondamment utilisé et indissociable de la santería, comme du spiritisme et du catholicisme. On s'interrogera toutefois sur les enjeux politiques et sociaux de l'utilisation passée et présente de cette dichotomie à Cuba, des élites intellectuelles du début du siècle au gouvernement castriste actuel."

Euless tries to block Santeria lawsuit  2/3/2007 Dallas Morning News: "The city of Euless has asked a federal judge to dismiss a religious discrimination lawsuit filed by a Santeria priest who wants to sacrifice animals at his home. The priest, Jose Merced, sued the city in December after police and permit officials told him he couldn't kill goats for an initiation ceremony."

Yoruba: Un acercamiento a nuestras raíces - Parte II  10/15/2006 Archivo Cubano 

Kongo Cruzado: Cuban Lukumi and Kongo Identities in the Art of Francisco "Gordillo" Arrendondo  9/16/2006 AfroCubaWeb: by Ivor Miller

Gesto solidario de religiosos afrocobanos  8/8/2006 Granma: "Sacerdotes de la religión afrocubana invocaron a sus dioses para ayudar a la recuperación del Presidente Fidel Castro, según reportes de la agencia Reuters. "Hay que abogar por la salud. Queremos hacer un tambor (ritual) en la playa a Olokún (la divinidad de la profundidad) con sacrificio de animales", dijo el sacerdote Víctor Betancourt. La Asociación Yoruba de Cuba rogó al panteón de los orishas, o divinidades, por la salud del mandatario."Como religiosos, nuestra posición es seguir los designios de los dioses, que son entender y apoyar las decisiones tomadas por nuestro máximo líder", dijo la Asociación."

Yoruba: Un acercamiento a nuestras raíces  8/1/2006 ArchivoCubano  

Lo que sucederá en el desfile de la serpiente  6/1/2006 Casa del Caribe, Santiago: "“Con un toque de invocación a Elegguá, entre rezos y conjuros, acompañados por el fuego de tambores Batá consagrados para la ceremonia, rogando la presencia del Orisha para que abra el camino y la serpiente caribeña pueda despedazarse romperá el desfile inaugural del 26 Festival, llamado De la Serpiente”. A ese tiempo, los centenares de participantes se van colocando a lo largo de la vía desde el cruce de Aguilera y San Félix y Eleggúa viene al fin con sus saltos y fintas a señalar los senderos abiertos: Son Los Ripiaos los que inician la marcha. Irrumpe entonces con la inquietud de sus púas y el paso entrecortado del Gagá, el bloque integrado por La Caridad, Thompson y Barrancas, con sus toques singulares, pilares de la cultura popular tradicional." [sigue la lista de los grupos del festival]

Se juntan las bendiciones del cine y la música  1/15/2006 Jiribilla: "Iré Habana es un proyecto bicúspide: así se llaman tanto el documental, realizado en formato de DVD por Jorge Perugorría y Ángel Alderete, como el CD del compositor y pianista José María Vitier, autor de la música que el documental mencionado recrea en imágenes. En la parte netamente musical de este proyecto, es decir en el CD, intervienen, además de Vitier —por supuesto, como pianista— la cantante Bárbara Llanes, el percusionista Yaroldi Abreu y en el bajo acústico, Jorge Reyes. Iré Habana (en lengua yoruba) significa “bendición a La Habana”, y algo así resultan en conjunto este documental y el disco de Perugorría, Alderete y Vitier."

Mensajero de Ochún  9/23/2005 CubaEncuentro: «Soy mulato, injerto de españoles y africanos, y como decía el poeta: 'dejo que mi canto negriblanco suba'», porque los orishas negros son mensajeros de Dios', dice el artista Alberto Morgan.

Cuban Film Star to Present Documentary on Cuban Pianist Jose Maria Vitier  5/11/2005 Prensa Latina: ""Iré Habana," in Yoruba, stands for "blessing to Havana." "It is a song to the health of the city, whose inspiring beauty we feel is threatened," the actor stated for a local radio station. Made by filmmaker Angel Alderete, the film -in DVD format- presents the music by a namesake album by Cuban pianist and composer Jose Maria Vitier, a fusion of Latin jazz with genres ranging from traditional trova to Cuban country music."

Lázaro Ros  3/16/2005 The Guardian: "The singer Lázaro Ros, who has died of cancer aged 79, was a leading figure in Afro-Cuban culture. A modest and friendly man, he strove to raise awareness of the rich legacy of African slaves taken to Cuba. He performed the music of the Lucumí culture, which also includes religion and dance, of the Yoruba people from modern-day Nigeria, and the music of the Arará culture of the Dahomeyan people from modern-day Benin. On one estimate, 70% of Cubans practise an African religion, the main one being Santería, the cult of saints, in which deities from the homeland are worshipped through Catholic equivalents. From an early age, Ros taught himself the chants arising from the practice of this religion in the Lucumí and Arará cultures: he possessed an extraordinary voice, capable of hitting both high and low notes."

Mendive: Deities define his art  3/6/2005 Miami Herald: "In the art world, Manuel Mendive is considered the leading contemporary Afro-Cuban artist, his magic realist canvases, sculptures and performance pieces inspired by his mystical beliefs in the santería religion. In South Florida, where Mendive´s one-man show Feeding the Spirit, the Light, the Ancestors, Olodumare, the most beautiful thing opened Friday at Gary Nader Fine Art in Coral Gables, the painter´s name also evokes a key moment in Cuban-exile history. Almost 17 years ago, an angry exile protesting an auction of artwork by Cuban painters living on the island bought Mendive´s painting The Peacock for $500 -- then publicly burned it."

INTERNATIONAL YORUBA WORKSHOP IN SANTIAGO  3/1/2005 Cuba Now: "The history of the Yoruba culture and its presence in Latin America and the Caribbean is the main topic of the 8th Ortiz-Lachatanere International Workshop on African Roots to be held in Santiago de Cuba (April 5-9).The history of the Yoruba culture and its presence in Latin America and the Caribbean is the main topic of the 8th Ortiz-Lachatanere International Workshop on African Roots to be held in Santiago de Cuba (April 5-9)."

El fenómeno Iyónifá en Cuba  3/1/2005 Consenso: Consenso is the dissident PARP party organ. By Víctor Betancourt Estrada, Awo Omolófaoró (Sacerdote de Ifá) - "Este fenómeno se pone de manifiesto a partir que, en el año 1985, el hermano Ifá Yemí Elibuibón, de origen yoruba, inicia en Estados Unidos, a la primera mujer Ìyáonifa (mujer adivina en los secretos de la religión de Ifa) de América, Señora Daifá, ciudadana Norteamérica. Desde ese instante, ese histórico acontecimiento, despierta el interés de muchos estudiosos de las tradiciones yorubas, de profundizar en el tema, tanto en Cuba como en América y, algunos de ellos, comienzan a profundizar en la legitimidad de la mujer como sacerdotisa de Ifá (1). Este relevante acaecimiento originó muchas polémicas y contradicciones entre religiosos, incluyendo a los propios historiadores e investigadores de nuestras tradiciones."

Is Santeria used as ploy to skirt travel rules to Cuba?  2/27/2005 Miami Herald: was this printed at the request of Lincoln Diaz Balart?

IRAKERE, A LEGEND WITH A YORUBAN NAME  2/1/2005 Cuba Now 

LAZARO ROSS, CUBA’S GREAT AKPWON  1/20/2005 Granma: "LAZARO Ross is the undisputed king of African music in Cuba, the akpwón (lead singer in music of Yoruba origin.) With his metallic, atonal, full voice, his high-pitched register seems to emerge from the depths of the rivers, as Robert Blanco would say. I visit him often at his small house in Guanabacoa – an area of African traditions – where he lives with Oggún and his best friends: 1,500 books, an altar at the entrance with his Eleggua, a hook and dry coconut. Everything is very modest, like his personality, warm and kind. We chatted about the human and the divine; he does not consider himself a musicologist, but has the wisdom of experience. Born in 1925, he has sung for half the world and has much to tell." [Interview follows.]

Religious festivities pale in comparison to previous years  10/6/2004 CubaNet: "What can I tell you, my man, this year things are tough," said one babalawo or Yoruba priest. "What with the blackouts and the scarcity of money, there's not much you can do." This babalawo lives on Zaragoza Street, on a block where 14 babalawos are concentrated. In previous years, the celebrations poured out on the street. This year, all was quiet outside; celebrants remained indoors."

Interview with Marta Moreno Vega  8/19/2004 MundoAfroLatino: published 7/26/03 - "When the spirits dance Mambo, produced by the Caribbean Cultural Center, Marta Moreno Vega and Bobby Shephard, has been screened all across the United States and in film festivals in Europe and Cuba. The documentary highlights history of the African traditions of Cuba and it's influence in Cuban popular music. There are interviews with practioners of the West African Yoruba based tradition of Santeria along with appearances by the Muñequitos de Matanzas, Yoruba Andabo, Cuban Hip Hop artists and many others."

New Book on Yoruba Religion Ethical Principles Launched in Havana  6/2/2004 Cubarte Newsletter: "Cuban philosopher and researcher Miguel Limia made the presentation at the launching ceremony. He said that the stories and fables contained in the book are interesting lessons carried by a culture that has endured the devastating actions of the Western hegemonic culture. The book is a valuable source for the study of the moral and spiritual legacy left in Cuba by the people of Nigeria, who were forced to migrate to the island by Slavery, said Limia. Journalist Martha Rojas, from the Cuban daily Grannma, also on hand at the ceremony, commended the book and stressed the need of being more ecumenical in the studies of philosophical and religious trends."

MENDIVE - Cuban national, Yoruban soul  12/7/2003 Jamaica Observer 

Dancing With the Spirits - Rare Afro-Cuban music highlights DePaul conference  9/16/2003 Centerstage, Chicago: "Led by master drummer Román Diaz, the group began with ritual a cappella singing that recounted the myths of Abakuá, a secret male society in Cuba that originates from Nigeria's Cross River region. Later, Omi Odara played complex, interlocking rhythms on four sacred drums during the masquerade procession of the ireme dancer, a spectacle rarely seen outside Cuba or Nigeria. The music of Santeria, the Afro-Cuban religion rooted in the Yoruba culture, opened the second day. Dancer Félix "Pupi" Insua performed as several of the orichas (deities representing forces of nature) including Elegua, the Trickster. As he feverishly danced around the conference room to the intense call-and-response singing and drumming of the group, Elegua urged attendees to get up and move, and in seconds virtually the entire room was grooving with the Guardian of the Crossroads."

CUBA: TIERRA SANTA DE LOS ORISHAS  7/27/2003 Jiribilla: "Del 7 al 13 de julio de 2003 tuvo lugar en el palacio de las Convenciones de La Habana el Octavo Congreso Mundial de la Tradición y Cultura Orisha. En esta labor de resistencia cultural, las religiones hicieron la función de núcleos duros, permitiendo la pervivencia de la lengua, la música, los bailes, los cantos…"

8th World Congress on Orisha Traditions and Culture  7/21/2003 Granma: "The meeting (July 7-13) gathered over 400 participators — half of whom were delegates from Mexico, Canada, the United States, Belgium, France, Spain, Argentina, and Trinidad and Tobago — analyzing a wide range of topics in nine commissions. The first commission focused on education, culture and art; the rest as follows: continuity and change in the context of the Diaspora; ethical, philosophical and psychological perspectives; ethnicity, family and gender relations; rituals, ceremonies and experience in the Yoruba religious traditions; culture, identity and transculturation; ethno-biological perspectives; preservation and cultural continuity; culture and identity; and inter-religious dialogue. Yemi Elebuibon, Nigeria; Gilberto Ferreira, Brazil; Chief Adeyela Adelekan, Britain; Madam Joan Cyrus, Trinidad and Tobago; and John Watson, the United States presented the plenary session reports… The UNEAC president acknowledged that there are still “insufficient links at an institutional level, but Cuba’s Yoruba Cultural Association has added its name to the call we made for an antifascist world front. From the cultural point of view we have strong ties linking us to the world they represent because we have a large number of persons of African origin who were brought here as slaves and who left us their ancestry. This culture can be seen in all walks of Cuban life because everything here is intermixed, has become intermixed, and we are this huge ajaico (Fernando Ortiz employed this word, which is a type of Cuban stew). We are a third product, we’re not Congolese, carabali (Western African people), Chinese, from Seville or from Galicia, we’re Cubans.” " - the UNEAC president echoes a consistent Cuban reaction to the themes represented by the conference, one which dates back to Jose Marti.

Bobi Cespedes inspired by Santeria beliefs  3/2/2003 San Francisco Chronicle: "The album is just getting into stores and it's looking good. I hear it's also starting to get airplay in Cuba, too," says singer Gladys "Bobi" Cespedes about her debut album "Rezos" ("Prayers") from her home in Oakland. For years, Cespedes has been the co-leader of the renowned Bay Area salsa- son band Conjunto Cespedes. But the songs this Santeria priestess sings on her solo outing for San Francisco's Six Degrees Records are a progressive departure."

Santeria leaders foretell war and mayhem in '03  1/4/2003 AP 

Santería cubana pronostica 2003  1/3/2003 BBC 

FUSED FAITHS  12/27/2002 Sun Sentinel, Florida: repeating familiar dinsinformation - "The parallel faiths bleed into one another. Each deity, or orisha, has a corresponding Catholic saint, producing a religious syncretism that is distinctly Cuban." In fact, Yoruba religion took the images of the saints but not the theology, concepts, or rituals. The San Lazaro referred to as Babalu Aye does not even exist in Catholic tradition.

Lazaro Ros: EL ASALTO DE LOS ORISHAS  12/12/2002 Jiribilla: "El hombre venerable, que ha dedicado la mayor parte de su vida a buscar en la voz de los mayores la resonancia de los ancestros africanos, dijo unas pocas palabras de agradecimiento por habérsele hecho este agasajo, que ha llegado profundamente a su corazón."

Ajé Chaluga  11/14/2002 Encuentro: por Natalia Bolívar - "Ajé Chaluga regala sus favores arbitrariamente y con frecuencia no es al primero, sino al último, a quien bendice y mejora. En ocasiones importantes, cuando grandes cantidades de dinero han sido gastadas, es usual oír el grito de "¡Age, oh!" (en África), lo que implica que tales gastos han sido posibles gracias a la bendición del orisha. Tales ocasiones dan una demostración concreta de su generosidad. Encontrar una concha grande en el camino es considerado como signo de buena suerte. Igual que todos los orishas, aunque quizás en mayor medida, exige completa confianza en sus poderes."

Race and patriotism in Afro-Cuba  11/13/2002 San Francisco Bay View: by Willie Thompson, Emeritus Professor of Sociology, CCSF - "Most of us met the anthropological research team called Project Orunmila in Regla, Cuba, 10 minutes from Havana. I spent the last day alone with this family-run document recovery, transcription and dissemination project that also operates a farm to provide financial support. I had earlier misunderstood the extremely important work of this group and unjustly accused them of insufficient rage at the historical and contemporary color prejudice still extant in Cuba, as though rage and alienation are the only appropriate responses. I clearly undervalued the depth and significance of their work and the African originated materials they are diffusing in Cuba and beyond. I quote from an annotation on one of their volumes, called “Awo Orunla Dice Ifa”: “This book is the widest and most complete compilation of the complex panorama of legends that once belonged to the Yoruba people of Nigeria and that are still standing in Cuba and in different areas of the Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, etc.), the USA and several Latin American countries (Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil). The work is organized according to the Oduns of Ifa. All writings are therefore placed in corresponding order. This leads the user to a better comprehension and understanding of the panoramic vision of the mythological world of Ifa. It relates an organized knowledge about the men’s event as individuals, the way of thinking of those men, and about the society in which they live.” Sponsorship is needed for Project Orunmila to continue publication. The project may be reached by email at proyecto@orunmila.net or adeyeri@orunmila.net; by phone at 97-0677 (the home of Elsa, a neighbor) or by writing to Camilo Cienfuegos #109 e/c Oscar Lunar Y Nico Lopez, Regla 12 C.P. 11200, Ciuidad de la Habana Cuba."

DIOSES Y ORISHAS  10/13/2002 Jiribilla: on the Chinese gods and the Orishas

HOY FIESTAS DE LA CARIDAD DEL COBRE, PATRONA DE CUBA  9/7/2002 Radio Havana: La Caridad del Cobre is Oshun, Orisha of love, riches, and streams. Yet Catholicism prevails in this account despite the fact that Catholicism was never the religion of the people in Cuba, where there weren't enough priests to exterminate African religions - "La Fiesta de la Caridad del Cobre, Patrona de Cuba, incluirá mañana, la celebración de 46 procesiones en ocho provincias de la Isla, y una alocución del obispo de Cienfuegos, Emilio Aranguren, por la emisora radial "La Voz del Mar". En el Santuario Nacional de la Virgen del Cobre, en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, el arzobispo Pedro Meurice oficiará una misa, a la cual asistirá una delegación de República Dominicana organizada por el sacerdote cubano Avelino Fernández, obispo de Barahona."

Nigeria welcomes a long-lost son of the land by Babalawo Shangodare Fashina  7/17/2002 SF Bay View: "On July 24, 2001, I traveled to Nigeria. This was a momentous occasion because it was the place from which my paternal ancestry emanates. Just like Alex Haley, the author of “Roots” and “The Autobiography Of Malcolm X,” I had traced my ancestry. My ancestral ties date back to 1790, when my great-great-great-grandmother was taken from the Blight of Benin, an area that stretches from Porto Novo, Republic of Benin, to Bidagry, Nigeria. Although it took long arduous hours to look up genealogical slave and free census records and write and record numerous hours of oral genealogical information from relatives, the African-American Genealogical Society under the leadership of Vice President Electra Price provided invaluable help. Upon my arrival in Nigeria, I was soon to undergo an initiation as a Babalawo, or high priest, in the African indigenous religion called Ifa. Ifa is an African belief system more than 10,000 years old."

Agrupación rumbera cubana mantiene riqueza sonora en su cumpleaños 45  7/5/2002 Cultura: "A juicio del investigador Juan García, director del Conjunto Folclórico Nacional, el principal legado de Afrocuba, reside en haber llevado a la escena el legado patrimonial que se conserva, tanto en lo ritual como en lo profano. En conversación con Prensa Latina, expresó que en los espectáculos del grupo están incluidos, coreográficamente, rituales yoruba, abakuá, guaguancó, columbia y se ofrecen ciclos de bailes y cantos de diversas regiones del continente africano. "Otro aspecto importante, según García, es el haber incorporado a la percusión rumbera tradicional los tambores batá, sagrados en la liturgia africana, lo que dio lugar a una nueva polirritmia, el batarrumba."

At the Crossroads - Afro-Cuban Orisha Arts in Miami  6/16/2002 Historical Museum of Southern Florida: It is rare to have such expressions in Miami, where Afrocubans live in a segregated area away from most other Cubans, unless they choose to go to New Jersey, which many do. Most of the artists here appear to be white.

CAMAGUEY FOLKLORIC BALLET PREPARES FOR PERFORMANCE IN GRENADA  5/18/2002 Radio Havana: "The dance company's director, Reynaldo Echemendia told reporters that the presentation includes dances that reflect the syncretic religious rites introduced by African slaves. "Echu" recreates the games and pranks of "Eleggua," "Orisha" from the pantheon "Yoruba" of the largest Afro-Cuban tradition on the island and "Oya Yansan," based on the relation between the deities "Oya," "Oggun" and "Chango" are included among the pieces the group will perform. The repertoire also includes the "Congas" and "San Juan de Mi Barrio" shows, referring to national carnival traditions, rural dances and other Cuban rhythms."

Santeros predicen éxodos y golpes de Estado  1/4/2002 El Nuevo Herald 

Santeros predicen un año difícil  1/2/2002 AP: "Los babalawos (sacerdotes) yorubas aconsejaron a los cubanos tener paciencia y no desesperarse, pues el 2002 será ``un año difícil'', según la predicción de la Asociación Cultural Yorubá conocida como ``Letra del Año'', dada a conocer el martes en La Habana."

Alertan sacerdotes de culto Yoruba sobre peligros de mundo convulso  1/1/2002 Prensa Latina: Letra del Año: "No obstante tales predicciones, para este grupo gobernara el ano Shango acompanado de Yemaya (Santa Barbara y la Virgen de Regla, respectivamente en el santoral catolico), mientras para la Asociacion Cultural yoruba, esta ultima deidad constituye la orisha regente acompanada de Orunmila (San Francisco en el santoral catolico)."

Followers of Afro-Cuban religion honor Babalu Aye, one of their holiest saints with unusual procession  12/18/2001 AP: A few incaccuracies… the procession is more of a Catholic thing, santeros are not discriminted against hand have their religious practices on any day of the year, out in the open - a toque will attract people out in the street, for example.

Matanzas, `the Athens of Cuba,' is worth the long trip  12/13/2001 Boston Herald: "But in the late afternoon we take an excursion to Jovellanos, a town hard hit in November by Michelle, the most damaging hurricane to reach Cuba in half a century. Here we give away what medical supplies, toiletry items and clothes we could bring in our luggage from the United States. Jovellanos also is a hotbed of Afro-Cuban music played by descendents of the Arara tribe of Benin, Africa. On the front porch of their home, four generations of the Baro family sing, dance and drum for us and a large crowd of delighted neighbors. This folkloric performance starts with a powerful chant from the family's matriarch, an old woman whose father, we are told, had been brought to Cuba at age 11 as a slave. The dancers are dressed as orishas,the Santeria gods. We have met these orishas so often in the past week, they now seem - as they must to Cubans - like old friends."

TIENE LA PALABRA EL BABALAO  7/1/2001 La Jiribilla, Cuba: "Con la gracia y el permiso de los orishas, Enriquito, el célebre santero, palero y abbakuá y singular personalidad de la villa de Guanabacoa, revela predicciones, sentimientos y criterios de este mundo y del otro…"

Orishas and their Cuban rap  2/27/2001 Granma: "It's said that New York is the cradle of rap, but when the group Orishas launched its CD A lo cubano (The Cuban Way, EMI France), astonishment turned into success. They triumphed, as they had done before, with their songs in the charts of 18 countries."

Their Eyes Were Watching Eleggúa  4/20/2000 Miami New Times: "One sign of the relevance of Santería to the six-year-old is a letter that has been circulated and discussed on Spanish-language radio for several months. It relates a bizarre story involving Fidel Castro, human sacrifice, and the rafter child. The tale has outraged some Santería practitioners, who believe those who want Elian to remain in Miami are manipulating the religion for political ends."

Afrocuban Religions in Sara Gomez's One Way or Another and Gloria Rolando's Oggun  12/1/1998 The Western Journal of Black Studies: Vol 22, No 4, Winter 1998 by HASEENAH EBRAHIM, Northwestern University - "This paper explores the depiction of Afrocuban religions in two films -- Sara Gomez's One Way or Another (1974/1977) and Gloria Rolando's Oggun: Forever Present (1991). A (Western)feminist's analysis of Gomez's One Way or Another characterizes Abakua and Santeria as "voodoo" -- not only collapsing three different Afro-Caribbean religious traditions, but also reflecting Marxist biases that exclude (ironically) a recognition that Gomez's depictions of Abakua and Santeria reflect a gendered perspective. Rolando's Oggun reflects a recent trend in Cuban cinema to celebrate Afrocuban religious practices. Oggun's stunning visuals, compelling song and dance sequences, and fascinating mythology provoke a desire to understand the role and impact of this remarkable religious tradition in Cuban society."

A Pope in the Land of the Orishas  3/1/1998 Cuba Update 

Santa Barbara or Chango? Pope to find Afro-Catholicism strong in Cuba  12/29/1997 AP: This is article is full of common misconceptions. There is no afro-catholicism - for the most part, AfroCubans turn their back resolutely on the pope. Yoruba culture in Cuba borrowed superficial elements such as some names and some images, but no theology. No theology!


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