Mala Lengua  
 
AfroCubaWeb
  Home - Portal | Music - Música | Authors - Autores | Arts - Artes 
  Site Map - Mapa del Sitio | News - Noticias | Search ACW - Buscar en ACW 
 
  Mala Lengua
 

The 1st Marines in Cuba
1906-1913

The next designated "1st Regiment" was organized at Philadelphia in 1906 
for duty in Cuba where revolution threatened American lives and property.<24> 
Spain gave up sovereignty in Cuba in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, and 
the right to intervene was established by the Platt Amendment.<25> After 
standing by aboard ship for several days, the regiment landed at Havana on 29 
September and immediately moved inland to Cienfuegos, the capital of Santa 
Clara Province and the stronghold of insurgent sentiment.<26> The arrival of 
the Marines had a quieting effect on the populace.  The commanding officer, 
Lieutenant Colonel George Barnett (12th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 
1914-1920), sent detachments into the surrounding countryside to garrison and 
protect key points.

     On 2 October, the regiment became part of the 1st Brigade commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel L. W. T. Waller, and went about' its tasks of settling 
local disputes, disarming insurgents, patrolling, and mapping.  When Army 
units took over the garrisoning of Cuba, the Marines stayed on to assist.  
With only one-fifth the numerical strength of the Army force, the Marines 
carried a large part of the occupational burden.  On 31 August 1907, for 
example, 11 stations were occupied by Marines while 18 were occupied by Army 
troops.

     In the months that followed, the pacification of Cuba continued.  For the 
Marines, of what had become the 1st Provisional Regiment as of 1 November 
1906, life fell into a pattern of routine duty.  They continued to patrol the 
countryside to insure the preservation of order.  They protected property and 
cooperated with local authorities in the management of civil affairs.  The 
boredom and sameness of this duty was relieved by an occasional liberty in 
Havana.<27>

     With the election of a democratic government promised by 1 February 1909, 
the United States occupation of Cuba could be terminated.  On 1 January, the 
first contingent sailed in USS PRAIRIE, and by the 23d the last of the 
regiment had left Havana for the United States.  For two and one-half years, the 1st Regiment's Marines had performed their onerous and often tedious duties with typical Marine 
crispness.  They left behind a history of dedication to duty and friendship 
with the Cuban people.  What was unforeseeable then was that the regiment 
would return to Cuba in the very near future.

     On 2 December 1909, the 1st Regiment, now under command of Colonel James 
E. Mahoney, sailed from Philadelphia via the Canal Zone for Nicaragua, where, 
on 11 December; it became part of the brigade sent to that country to maintain 
order during a revolution.  The regiment did not have to land at this time, 
and on 10 March 1910, it sailed back to Philadelphia leaving one battalion at 
Camp Elliott, Panama.<28>

     The 1st Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade, was organized aboard the USS 
PRAIRIE on 8 March 1911 for temporary foreign shore service in Cuba.<29> 
Actually, this maneuver was designed as a show of force to dissuade Mexican 
rebel activities near the border of the United States.<30> The Marine Corps, 
having demonstrated its readiness and ability to move quickly from either 
coast to troubled areas, returned the regiment to Philadelphia by 22 June with 
the knowledge that it could be readily mobilized if again needed.<31>

     The next 1st Regiment so designated had its inception in the Advance Base 
Battalion formed at Philadelphia on 11 August.<32> This Battalion, composed of 
Companies E, F, and G, became the Advance Base School established at 
Philadelphia on 11 September to train Marines for advance base activities.

     A cadre from the school formed the nucleus of the 1st Provisional 
Regiment organized on 23 May 1912 for expeditionary duty in Cuba, where the 
Negro Revolt threatened United States lives and property.  Colonel Lincoln 
Karmany and has successor, Colonel George Barnett, employed the regiment in 
guarding towns and plantations against marauding bands of rebels, thereby 
relieving the regular Cuban troops for operations in the field.<33> A company 
was sent to Santiago, with reinforcements following, and another company was 
sent to Manzanillo, but the bulk of the regiment remained in camp at 
Guantanamo Bay until 5 June when it moved to inland areas.  Gradually, the 
regular Cuban forces prevailed over the rebels, and by July, Marine forces 
were withdrawing as they turned over their guard duties to the Cubans.  On 1 
August, the 1st Provisional Regiment departed Camp Meyer, Guantanamo Bay 
aboard the USS PRAIRIE bound for Philadelphia.  On 5 August, the regiment 
ceased to exist with its companies returning to their original stations.<34>

     Yet another 1st Regiment was organized at Philadelphia on 21 August 19l2 
again with the Advance Base School furnishing the personnel for its nucleus.  
Under the command of Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, it sailed aboard the USS 
PRAIRIE on the 24th for expeditionary duty in Nicaragua, where revolution threatened 
American lives and interests.  The regiment opened up the rail line from Managua to Granada 
and gradually restored order in the country.  By the end of the year, the 
regiment's task was finished, and on 6 January 1913, it was back in 
Philadelphia, where its units were returned to their original stations.<35>

 

Taken from the following at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/usmchist/1967.txt

 

                      A Brief History Of The 1st Marines
                                      by                      
                         Major John H. Johnstone, USMC


                               First Printing 1962
                                  Revised 1968

                        Historical Branch, G-3 Division
                        Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps
                            Washington, D. C. 20380

                                     1968

                            DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
                    HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
                             WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

                                    PREFACE

     The revision of "A Brief History of the 1st Marines" provides a narrative 
account of the Regiment from its formation in 1899 to its participation in 
Vietnam in 1967.

     This history is published for the information of those who are interest 
in the 1st Marines and the role it played and continues to play in adding to 
Marine Corps traditions and battle honors.

                                  <SIGNATURE>

                                  R. G. OWENS
                     Brigadier General, U. S. Marine Corps
                          Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3

Reviewed and approved: 8 March 1968


 
                       A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1ST MARINES


                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                          
                                                           Original    Online
                                                           Page        Page
Brief History of the 1st Marines                              1           6
Notes                                                        29          34
Appendix A - Commanding Officers, 1st Marines, 1900-1967     35          40
Appendix B - 1st Marines Medal of Honor Recipients           43          48
Appendix C - Honors of 1st Marines                           44          49




                      A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1ST MARINES

                                      by

                         Major John H. Johnstone, USMC


                            Early Force in Readiness

     The achievements of the 1st Marines provide some of the most colorful and 
inspiring pages in the military history of the United States.  It is the 
oldest permanently organized regiment of the Marine Corps, and over the years, 
it has served with distinction wherever the national interests of the United 
States have required.

     The 1st Regiment<1> had its birth in the Philippines in 1899 as an 
outgrowth of the Spanish American War.<2> Under the provisions of the Treaty 
of Paris of 10 December 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United 
States.  Until civil government could be established, the islands were placed 
under the administrative control of the United States Army.  This was not 
acceptable to Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, who had headed an earlier 
revolt against the Spanish and had more recently formed an insurgent unit to 
assist the United States forces against the Spanish.  Aguinaldo declared the 
independence of the Philippines, established a provisional government, and, on 
20 January 1899, proclaimed his constitution and assumed the presidency.  On 4 
February, he attacked the United States forces at Manila.

     The Army had been given the mission of guarding Cavite, the chief naval 
base in the Philippines.  When the soldiers were pulled out and committed in 
the operations against the insurgents, Cavite was left unprotected.  By the 
second week of March, Admiral George Dewey, Commander in Chief of the Asiatic 
Fleet, sent for a battalion of Marines to protect the base.<3>

     The battalion of 15 officers and 260 enlisted men, which was assembled at 
the New York Navy Yard, shipped out on 13 April under the command of Colonel 
Percival C. Pope.  It was equipped with four 3-inch field pieces, two Colt 
machine guns, and the men were armed with Lee 6mm rifles.

     A second battalion came into being as the result of a request on 26 July 
1899 from Rear Admiral John C. Watson, new commander of the Asiatic Station, 
for additional Marines for duty at Cavite.  Within a month, the battalion of 
16 officers and 362 enlisted men, commanded by Major George F. Elliott


                                      1




 
(10th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1903-1910), was on its way to the 
Philippines.

     On 15 December, a third battalion of 15 officers and 325 enlisted men, 
under the command of Major Littleton W. T. Waller, arrived in the Philippines.  
Three days later, this battalion was disbanded, and its personnel were 
distributed between the first and second battalions, with Major Waller 
assuming command of the first battalion.  Each of the two battalions at first 
had four companies designated A, B, C, and D.  To complete the reorganization, 
the companies of the second battalion were redesignated E, F, G, and H, and 
the two battalions were joined together to form the 1st Regiment.<4>

     During 1899-1901, detachments from the "brigade" and later 1st Regiment 
were detailed as guards and garrisoned various points around Subic Bay with 
greater concentrations placed in the Cavite area.  During these years, the men 
of the regiment set an outstanding record protecting the bases from insurgents 
and thieves and maintaining law and order in the occupied areas.

     Notable in the early service was the valuable assistance rendered by a 
detachment of Marines with a Colt machine gun, under command of Captain Henry 
C. Haines, in support of United States Army units in the march from Bacoor to 
Imus in October 1899.<5>

     In December, as part of a joint Army-Navy operation to clear the western 
part of Luzon of insurgents, Captain Herbert L. Draper's Company E was ordered 
from Cavite to Olongapo to occupy the town and clear the surrounding country 
of insurgents and marauders.  An incident involving this company, on 16 
February 1900, illustrates the use of naval vessels in support of Marine 
operations against the Filipino insurgents.  On that date, it was necessary to 
send working parties to Benictican in Bataan Province for water.  One of these 
parties was attacked, and two Marines were killed.<6> A rescue party from 
Olongapo drove off the insurgents, who retired to Moron, a town on the west 
coast of Bataan Peninsula, where they had a headquarters with a blockhouse and 
a system of entrenchments.

     Captain Draper, determined to punish the offenders, persuaded the captain 
of a native steamer to tow the disabled gunboat USS MANILENO with his force to 
Moron.  Surprising the defenders, he destroyed the town and burned the 
blockhouse. After warning all inhabitants to leave Benictican for Olongapo or 
be declared outlaws, Draper arranged for the gunboat USS NASHVILLE to bombard 
that town on 23 February.  After the shelling he entered Benictican, found it 
abandoned, and destroyed it completely.

     In addition to his military duties, Captain Draper exercised civil 
authority in Olongapo working through local


                                      2



officials.  The town, a refuge for civilians who were not in sympathy with the 
insurgents, gradually increased in population. Municipal elections were held 
with a president, vice-president, and secretary being elected by secret 
ballot; mayors of Benictican and Santa Rita were also chosen.  Small taxes 
were levied to defray the cost of maintaining the native police, cleaning the 
streets, and providing sanitation for the town.

     The Marines supplemented local services in many ways. They issued rations 
to prevent starvation, supplied medicines and medical attention, and set up a 
school to teach English.

     At the same time that the 1st Regiment was helping to restore law and 
order in the Philippines, a violently antiforeign organization rose in 
rebellion in China, determined to oust all foreigners from their country.  The 
Boxers, as they were called, destroyed several Christian villages in the early 
months of 1900.  Murder and pillage was their creed.  By May, the foreigners 
in the capital city of Peking were surrounded and in desperate straits.  An 
international force of about 2,000 men, including 112 American seamen and 
Marines, attempting to raise the siege, was itself besieged in an arsenal 
between Tientsin and Peking.

     The American government was greatly concerned over the situation and 
directed Admiral George C. Remey, now Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Naval 
Station, to render all possible assistance to the besieged forces.  As a 
result, a provisional battalion, composed of Companies A, C, and H of the 1st 
Regiment, landed at Taku Bar on 19 June 1900.<7> The battalion, commanded by 
Major Waller, moved inland to a point 12 miles from Tientsin where it joined 
with a Russian force of about 400 men.<8>

     The Russian commander, over Waller's protest that the joint force was 
insufficient, insisted on moving the following morning to the relief of the 
Tientsin garrison.  Waller was proved to be right as the effort failed, and 
the Marines and Russians withdrew to await reinforcements.

     On 11 July, Colonel Robert L. Meade and 300 men of his 1st Regiment 
together with the 9th Infantry, United States Army, arrived at Taku.  The 
American reinforcements joined Waller's battalion, the Russian troops, and a 
British force in the advance on Tientsin.  On 13 July, the siege of the 
foreign quarter of the city was lifted, and on the following day, the column 
broke through to the arsenal.<9>

     Shortly after the relief, Colonel Meade relinquished the command of the 
1st Regiment to Major Waller, who, in turn, was soon succeeded by Major 
William P. Biddle (11th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1911-1914).


                                      3




 
     By late July, the allied force was built up to about 18,660, and on 4 
August, under the command of Major General Adna R. Chaffee, USA, it moved 
towards Peking.  Minor resistance was encountered on the 80-mile march to the 
Chinese capital; however at Yang Tsun, on 6 August, the Marines did 
participate in a noteworthy engagement.  The Boxers launched cavalry attacks 
on the allied column but were repulsed.  After helping drive off these fanatic 
horsemen, Biddle's Marines assisted in seizing two enemy-held villages in 
spite of receiving heavy fire from artillery and small arms.<10>

     Pushing on from Yang Tsun, the relief expedition reached Peking on 14 
August and immediately launched an attack on the outer wall of the city.  
During the day, the Marines, assigned the mission of protecting the artillery, 
engaged in fire rights with the Boxers at the Chien-Men Gate.  Taking position 
in a storied pagoda and along the wall, the men of the Regiment poured a 
devastating fire into the enemy, mainly in the direction of the main gate.  By 
afternoon, the stubborn Boxers had been driven from the outer works, and the 
siege was lifted with the foreign residents passing through the Marines' lines 
to safety.

     On the following day, the attacks of all allied troops was successful, 
and the Chinese were gradually driven out of the remainder of the city.  On 
entering the Forbidden City, Company D of the 1st Regiment had the honor of 
hoisting the regimental colors over one of the administration buildings.<11>

     The Imperial Court had fled Peking leaving the area with virtually no 
government, so the Marines remained in the city to assist United States Army 
units in preventing looting and in restoring order.  On 4 September, the 2d 
Battalion of the 1st Regiment arrived in China as part of the 1st Brigade of 
the China Relief Expedition.  Shortly thereafter, the independent 4th and 5th 
Battalions arrived from the United States as part of the 2d Brigade.  The 
Marines remained in Peking until 28 September, when it was possible to 
withdraw them to the Philippines.

     Upon the return of the regiment to the Philippines, it brought with it 
the 4th and 5th Battalions.<12> With this added strength available, the 
Marines in the Philippines were reorganized into a provisional brigade of two 
regiments, each with two battalions.<13> In October, the Navy was able to take 
over the responsibility for the military government of the Cavite Peninsula 
and, in November, of the Subic Bay area.

     The 1st Regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Mancil C. Goodrell took station at 
Olongapo leaving the 2d Regiment and Brigade Headquarters at Cavite.  Over the 
next two years, the majority of the 1st Regiment was usually stationed at 
Olongapo, although occasional company-sized detachments were posted in 
outlying areas.  These companies were given the responsibility for


                                      4



administering local government in the areas occupied.  In carrying out this 
duty, Marine officers were appointed to various special tasks such as captains 
of the port, district commanders, inspectors of customs, internal revenue 
collectors, and provost judges and marshals.

     In 1900 and 1901, the areas occupied by Marine units in the Philippines 
remained comparatively free of insurrection; however, the insurgents of the 
island of Samar were still unpacified.  On 28 September 1901, the soldiers of 
Company C, Ninth Infantry, stationed at Balangiga, were massacred by the 
insurrectos.<14> This tragedy led Brigadier General Jacob M. Smith, United 
States Army, who was in command of the military district which included the 
island of Samar, to call for reinforcements.

     On 20 October 1901, in response to this request, a provisional battalion 
of Marines (15 officers and 300 enlisted), commanded by Major Littleton W. T. 
Waller, was detailed for duty in Samar.  Two days later, the battalion, 
composed of Companies C, D, and H of the 1st Regiment and Company F of the 2d 
Regiment, departed Cavite.  At the end of the month, the Marines arrived in 
Basey, Samar, where Major Waller disembarked his headquarters and two 
companies to relieve units of the 9th Infantry.  The remainder of the 
battalion proceeded to Balangiga and relieved the 17th Infantry.  Given 
responsibility for the southern half of the Island, Waller sent out daily 
expeditions to rid the surrounding countryside of insurgents.

     As the Marines sapped the strength and restricted the freedom of movement 
of the rebellious Moros, the insurgents gradually fell back from the southern 
coast of Samar.  By November, they had retreated to their final hideout, the 
heavily fortified defenses of the Sohoton Cliffs.  Attacking under Captains 
Hiram I. Bearss and David D. Porter, the Marines penetrated an area never 
before visited by white forces.  The Moros were completely surprised and their 
position was quickly overrun and destroyed.  The long march, exhausting climb, 
and shortage of rations caused the chase to be abandoned.

     In December 1901, Major Waller, in command of a force largely composed of 
men of the 1st Regiment, undertook the historic march across Samar in an 
effort to locate a route for laying a telephone line to connect the east and 
west coasts.  Militarily, the effort contributed little, but as an epic in the 
annals of courage and determination, the 190-mile march remains one of the 
most memorable records of the Marine Corps.<15> This small band of Marines, 
lacking in food and clothing, moved through virtually impenetrable terrain 
which necessitated the crossing and recrossing of greatly swollen streams, 
while at the same time, it was subject to insurgent harassment.  On 2 March 
1902, after having been relieved by a


                                      5




 
United States Army detachment, Waller's battalion returned to Cavite to rejoin 
the regiment.

     The 1st Regiment now had the opportunity to participate in a training 
exercise involving the defense of an advance base--a mission to become of 
foremost importance in the later history of the Marine Corps.

     In accordance with the recommendations of the General Board of the 
Navy<16>, Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, Commander-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet, set 
up as one of the Fleet exercises for December 1902, the seizing of an 
undefended harbor on a hypothetical enemy's coast and the subsequent defense 
of the harbor against an enemy counterlanding.  An expeditionary force of 200 
Marines from the 1st and 2d Regiments, with supplies and equipment from the 
advance base outfit, occupied Grande Island, at the entrance to Subic Bay.  
After they landed, the Marines installed guns for the protection of mine 
fields laid in the channels on each side of the island.

     On the conclusion of this successful problem, headquarters of the 1st 
Regiment and three companies were stationed at Cavite.  However, Olongapo 
shortly became the chief naval base in the islands, with most of the regiment 
moving there.  With the Philippines now cleared of insurgent activities and 
wide-spread banditry, the regiment settled down to normal garrison routine 
with emphasis on training for whatever might come.

     Throughout the next decade, the 1st Regiment participated in a number of 
actions in the Far East.  It provided a part of the detachment of about 100 
men and 3 officers sent to Korea, where, on 27 December 1903, a guard was 
established at the United States Legation in Seoul.<17> On 12 September 1905, 
a similar detachment arrived at Peking, China, to relieve a United States Army 
unit as Legation Guard.<18>  In October 1911, a battalion from Olongapo was 
sent to Shanghai to protect American lives and property when a revolution 
erupted against the Manchu dynasty in China.<19>

     The importance of the Philippines as a naval base diminished with the 
development of Pearl Harbor.  In April 1914, the Brigade as such was disbanded 
with the staff of the 1st Regiment and Companies B and E being detached to the 
Provisional Regiment, Guam, leaving Company A at Cavite and Companies C and D 
at Olongapo still under the title of 1st Regiment.<20>


                     Intervention and Advance Base Duties

     On 3 January 1904, another 1st Regiment<21> was formed at Empire, Panama, 
under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William P. Biddle.  This 1st Regiment 
was part of the Provisional Brigade sent to the Panamanian Isthmus to prevent 
the landing of any force which might threaten the railroads and the site of


                                      6



the proposed canal in the newly recognized Republic of Panama.<22>

     While on duty on the isthmus, the regiment concerned itself with terrain 
familiarization.  Numerous patrols were sent out to reconnoiter trails and 
locate and map the principal topographical features.  Considerable time was 
spent in making reconnaissances and studies for the defense of the proposed 
canal and the city of Panama.

     With relations between Columbia and the United States perceptibly 
improved, it was possible on 25 February to withdraw all Marines from Panama 
except the 1st Battalion, 1st Regiment, which was to remain as a stabilizing 
element until 22 December.<23>

     The next designated "1st Regiment" was organized at Philadelphia in 1906 
for duty in Cuba where revolution threatened American lives and property.<24> 
Spain gave up sovereignty in Cuba in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, and 
the right to intervene was established by the Platt Amendment.<25> After 
standing by aboard ship for several days, the regiment landed at Havana on 29 
September and immediately moved inland to Cienfuegos, the capital of Santa 
Clara Province and the stronghold of insurgent sentiment.<26> The arrival of 
the Marines had a quieting effect on the populace.  The commanding officer, 
Lieutenant Colonel George Barnett (12th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 
1914-1920), sent detachments into the surrounding countryside to garrison and 
protect key points.

     On 2 October, the regiment became part of the 1st Brigade commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel L. W. T. Waller, and went about' its tasks of settling 
local disputes, disarming insurgents, patrolling, and mapping.  When Army 
units took over the garrisoning of Cuba, the Marines stayed on to assist.  
With only one-fifth the numerical strength of the Army force, the Marines 
carried a large part of the occupational burden.  On 31 August 1907, for 
example, 11 stations were occupied by Marines while 18 were occupied by Army 
troops.

     In the months that followed, the pacification of Cuba continued.  For the 
Marines, of what had become the 1st Provisional Regiment as of 1 November 
1906, life fell into a pattern of routine duty.  They continued to patrol the 
countryside to insure the preservation of order.  They protected property and 
cooperated with local authorities in the management of civil affairs.  The 
boredom and sameness of this duty was relieved by an occasional liberty in 
Havana.<27>

     With the election of a democratic government promised by 1 February 1909, 
the United States occupation of Cuba could be terminated.  On 1 January, the 
first contingent sailed in USS PRAIRIE, and by the 23d the last of the 
regiment had left Havana 


                                      7




 
for the United States.  For two and one-half years, the 1st Regiment's Marines 
had performed their onerous and often tedious duties with typical Marine 
crispness.  They left behind a history of dedication to duty and friendship 
with the Cuban people.  What was unforeseeable then was that the regiment 
would return to Cuba in the very near future.

     On 2 December 1909, the 1st Regiment, now under command of Colonel James 
E. Mahoney, sailed from Philadelphia via the Canal Zone for Nicaragua, where, 
on 11 December; it became part of the brigade sent to that country to maintain 
order during a revolution.  The regiment did not have to land at this time, 
and on 10 March 1910, it sailed back to Philadelphia leaving one battalion at 
Camp Elliott, Panama.<28>

     The 1st Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade, was organized aboard the USS 
PRAIRIE on 8 March 1911 for temporary foreign shore service in Cuba.<29> 
Actually, this maneuver was designed as a show of force to dissuade Mexican 
rebel activities near the border of the United States.<30> The Marine Corps, 
having demonstrated its readiness and ability to move quickly from either 
coast to troubled areas, returned the regiment to Philadelphia by 22 June with 
the knowledge that it could be readily mobilized if again needed.<31>

     The next 1st Regiment so designated had its inception in the Advance Base 
Battalion formed at Philadelphia on 11 August.<32> This Battalion, composed of 
Companies E, F, and G, became the Advance Base School established at 
Philadelphia on 11 September to train Marines for advance base activities.

     A cadre from the school formed the nucleus of the 1st Provisional 
Regiment organized on 23 May 1912 for expeditionary duty in Cuba, where the 
Negro Revolt threatened United States lives and property.  Colonel Lincoln 
Karmany and has successor, Colonel George Barnett, employed the regiment in 
guarding towns and plantations against marauding bands of rebels, thereby 
relieving the regular Cuban troops for operations in the field.<33> A company 
was sent to Santiago, with reinforcements following, and another company was 
sent to Manzanillo, but the bulk of the regiment remained in camp at 
Guantanamo Bay until 5 June when it moved to inland areas.  Gradually, the 
regular Cuban forces prevailed over the rebels, and by July, Marine forces 
were withdrawing as they turned over their guard duties to the Cubans.  On 1 
August, the 1st Provisional Regiment departed Camp Meyer, Guantanamo Bay 
aboard the USS PRAIRIE bound for Philadelphia.  On 5 August, the regiment 
ceased to exist with its companies returning to their original stations.<34>

     Yet another 1st Regiment was organized at Philadelphia on 21 August 19l2 
again with the Advance Base School furnishing the personnel for its nucleus.  
Under the command of Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, it sailed aboard the USS 
PRAIRIE on the 24th for


                                      8



expeditionary duty in Nicaragua, where revolution threatened American lives 
and interests.  The regiment opened up the rail line from Managua to Granada 
and gradually restored order in the country.  By the end of the year, the 
regiment's task was finished, and on 6 January 1913, it was back in 
Philadelphia, where its units were returned to their original stations.<35>

     The Advance Base School also provided most of the personnel for the 1st 
Regiment organized at Philadelphia in early February 1913 for more 
expeditionary duty in Cuba.<36> On the 20th of the month, under the command of 
Colonel George Barnett, it left Philadelphia for Guantanamo Bay to take up 
occupational duty as part of the 2d Provisional Brigade maintaining order in 
the midst of further rebellion.  With its task completed, the regiment 
returned to Philadelphia, where, on 3 May, it was disbanded.

     The Advance Base Battalion was again organized on 19 May, and with the 
activation of a second Advance Base Battalion on 17 July, both battalions were 
organized into the 1st Advance Base Regiment.<37> The regiment was composed of 
C Company, a mine company trained to handle harbor defense mines; E Company, a 
signal company specialized in radio, telephone, telegraph, buzzers, and visual 
signaling; a field artillery battery which manned 3-inch field pieces; F and I 
Companies, which manned fixed batteries intended to be mounted for harbor 
defense; and H Company, which was trained both as an engineer company and as a 
machine gun company.  The regiment was to provide the force of technical 
troops and equipment required for the seizure and defense of an advance base.  
In the beginning, it was generally referred to as the "Fixed Defense 
Regiment." However, each company was also thoroughly schooled in infantry 
weapons and tactics to assure that all Marines were well familiar with their 
primary occupational specialty.

     On 23 December 1913, the regiment became part of the Advance Base Brigade 
formed at Philadelphia.<38> On 3 January 1914, it sailed with the Brigade for 
maneuvers with the Atlantic Fleet at Culebra, Puerto Rico.

     These maneuvers, forerunner of many to come over the years, consisted of 
the occupation and defense of the island of Culebra by the Advance Base 
Brigade with the landing force of the Atlantic Fleet acting as aggressor 
forces.  The mission of the 1st Regiment in defense included the placing of 
batteries of 3-inch guns on each side of the entrance to Culebra's harbor and 
laying control mines off shore.  The signal company, in addition to laying the 
above mines, provided telegraphic and telephonic connections for the entire 
brigade, established radio stations, and operated day and night visual 
stations.  The engineer company assisted the fixed gun companies in the 
preparation of gun emplacements, built docks for the handling of heavy 
material, and established machine gun positions on certain parts of the harbor 
shore line.  The First 3-inch Battery emplaced 4.7-inch 


                                      9




 
guns in permanent positions, holding its 3-inch field pieces in reserve.

     Upon the successful completion of these maneuvers, the regiment sailed to 
Pensacola, Florida, and then on to New Orleans, Louisiana.  Here on 18 
February 1914, the 1st Advance Base Regiment was redesignated 1st Regiment, 
Advance Base Brigade.<39> For the next two months, under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Charles G. Long, it operated aboard ship off New Orleans 
and Algiers, Louisiana.

     The location of the regiment at this time was no accident; its operation 
in waters just north of Mexico was part of another show of force by the United 
States in protest of the rule of the latest revolutionary victor in that 
country.<40> The Mexican situation worsened, and Marine forces were ordered to 
land at Vera Cruz to seize the customs house and prevent the landing of arms 
and ammunition by belligerents.  The 1st Regiment landed on 22 April and 
joined the 2d and 3d Regiments in clearing the city.<41> Sectors of Vera Cruz 
were assigned each regiment with orders to search every building for arms, to 
arrest all suspicious persons, and to stop the sniping.  The search was 
exhaustive and difficult with the sniping continuing. On the 23d, opposition 
slackened with the Marines occupying a large area of the city.  On 30 April, 
United States Army forces moved in with the Marine Brigade.  The 1st Regiment 
took its turn at outpost duty and used the opportunity for field training. On 
23 November, its Mexican tasks completed, the regiment returned to 
Philadelphia.<42>

     On 3 December, the entire brigade was reorganized giving one regiment the 
mission of fixed defense and the other the mission of mobile defense.  The 1st 
Regiment, the fixed defense regiment, was assigned a fire control unit and 
eight companies. These included four 5-inch gun companies, a searchlight 
company, a mine company, an engineer company, and an antiaircraft company. 
<43> The increase of firepower included in this reorganization strengthened 
the regiment's capabilities in keeping with Navy concern for the further 
development of the Marine Advance Base force.

     By the summer of 1915, however, advance base work had to be put aside for 
immediate problems.  This time, the 1st Regiment was called to reinforce 
Marine forces in Haiti.  The policy which dictated United States intervention 
resulted from requests by American business interests and the chaotic 
conditions which then existed in Haiti.  Also the United States felt obligated 
by the Monroe Doctrine to protect the interests and property of foreign 
(European) nations.<44>

     On 15 August, the 1st Regiment, minus the 2d Company which remained at 
Philadelphia for instruction in submarine mining, landed the 4th, 6th, and 22d 
Companies at Port au Prince and the 5th, 11th, 19th, and 23d Companies at Cape 
Haitian.<45>


                                      10



     In addition to rendering assistance in maintaining the economic stability 
of the country, the regiment carried out extensive patrolling into the 
interior of the country.  An estimated 25 to 50 thousand Cacos lived in the 
rugged mountains near the Dominican Republic.  These people were soldiers of 
fortune who lived on the country as bandits in normal times and supported one 
or the other of the candidates for the presidency during revolutionary 
periods.  The mission of the 1st Regiment in the next few months was to seek 
out and pacify, or "tame," the Cacos.  The Marines had many skirmishes with 
these rebels, with the attack and capture of Fort Riviere on 17 November being 
an engagement of particular note.

     The fort was situated on the summit of Montagne Noir, 4,000 feet above 
the sea, commanding the surrounding country for miles in every direction.  The 
fort itself was an old French bastion of approximately 200 square feet with 
thick walls of brick and stone.  The walls had been loop-holed to command the 
plain at the foot of the height.  Fortunately for the attacking Marines, the 
fire of the Cacos was inaccurate; the only real difficulty encountered was in 
climbing the hill. The main entrance to the fort on the north had been sealed 
by the Cacos, and a breach in the south wall had been made for passage.  It 
was through this hole that the Marines forced their way, overwhelming the 
enemy within the fort in a vicious ten-minute fray.  General Joseph, the Caco 
leader, was killed, and the survivors escaped over the walls.

     With the capture of Fort Capois shortly thereafter, the country became 
relatively stable with its inhabitants resuming more peaceful pursuits.  The 
regiment continued to patrol and garrison a number of towns until called to 
the neighboring Dominican Republic where internal disorders in the early 
months of 1916 threatened American lives and property.

     By the end of April, the 1st Regiment had joined the 1st, 9th, 13th 
(artillery), 14th, and 24th Companies from the 2d Regiment in Haiti, and in 
the first days of May, these companies together with the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 
19th Companies of the regiment were moved to Santo Domingo City to protect the 
American Legation and later to occupy the city during a period of 
insurrection.  On 1 July, the companies remaining in Haiti were detached from 
the 1st Regiment, the Field and Staff (Regimental Headquarters) and 
Headquarters Detachments of the 1st and 2d Regiments exchanged designations, 
and the 1st Regiment was reorganized in the Dominican Republic.<46>

     During its remaining months in the Republic, the regiment served as part 
of the 2d Provisional Brigade engaged in patrolling, manning garrisons, and 
administering the areas it occupied. On 19 December, the companies of the 1st 
Regiment headed home to Philadelphia leaving the Field and Staff at Santo 
Domingo City, where the latter was disbanded on 31 December.<47>


                                      11




 
     On 1 January 1917, the 1st Regiment, Fixed Defense Force was organized at 
Philadelphia, with the bulk of its personnel coming from the companies just 
returned from the Dominican Republic.<48> It was initially composed of the 2d, 
4th, 5th, 6th, and 19th Companies, with Headquarters Detachment being 
organized and the 11th and 22d Companies joining on 11 February.

     The Fixed Defense Force was organized as a result of possible naval 
requirements for establishing an advanced naval base somewhere in the 
Caribbean area to protect the Panama Canal during World War I.<49> With the 
German fleet never putting to sea, the base in the Caribbean was not needed.  
The 1st Regiment remained at Philadelphia during the war months, training 
officers and men in handling, installing, and using advance base material.<50> 
The beginnings of later amphibious training may be found in this advance base 
work, however, the emphasis at this time was on defense.  The regiment 
acquired heavier artillery, and more signal, searchlight, communications, and 
engineer units.

     These tenuous years were unglamorous ones for the 1st Regiment with its 
fixed defense problems complicated by the frequent detaching and joining of 
various companies.  These changes were necessitated by the regiment's basic 
mission as well as those of providing replacements for Marine units in Europe 
and of maintaining occupation troops in certain of the Caribbean countries.

     By the fall of 1918, with war demands lessening and more personnel 
available through peak mobilization, the regiment was able to participate in 
full scale training.  On 3 November, it embarked aboard the USS HANCOCK for 
maneuvers in Cuban waters.  In December, the regiment was incorporated into 
the 6th Provisional Brigade engaged in Cuba in protecting American lives and 
property during the Sugar Intervention.<51> On 20 June 1919, with its Cuban 
employment over, the regiment again boarded the USS HANCOCK for Philadelphia 
for further training in the principles of advance base activities.

     On 18 October 1920, the regiment was transferred from Philadelphia to 
Quantico, where training and schooling in advance base techniques continued.  
On 22 December it became part of the 3d Brigade stationed at Quantico.  By May 
1921, the regiment was composed of four battalions--signal, engineer, 
searchlight, and antiaircraft.  The next year was spent in extensive training.  
In the spring of 1922, most of its units were transferred to the 10th Marines 
or Marine Barracks, Quantico, and on 1 April, the 1st Regiment was 
disbanded.<52>

     On 1 August 1922, the 3d Regiment, 2d Brigade at Santo Domingo City 
Dominican Republic, was redesignated as the 1st Regiment.<53> It was 
reorganized to include Headquarters Company and Service Company, transferred 
from the 3d Regiment; Headquarters 1st Battalion, organized at Santo Domingo 
City; 


                                      12



the 44th, 114th, 182d, and 187th Companies, joined from the 15th Regiment; 
Headquarters 2d Battalion, organized at Santo Domingo City; and the 52d, 
115th, and 210th Companies, joined from the 3d Regiment.

     In the Dominican Republic, the regiment functioned as part of the 2d 
Brigade backing up the Dominican Policia, but it did not have to take the 
field or exercise any control over the Dominican government.  These months in 
the Republic were used to advantage in training under field conditions at Camp 
E. B. Cole, Santo Domingo City.<54>

     Early in 1924, several companies were phased back to the United States or 
transferred to other organizations in the Dominican Republic.  With the 
establishment of a regular government by the local authorities in July 1924, 
the regiment was disbanded.<55>

     On 15 March 1925, another 1st Regiment was organized at Marine Barracks, 
Quantico.<56> It was composed of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 
Service Company, Barracks Detachment, Motor Transport Detachment and Rifle 
Range Detachment. During the next six years, it was engaged in routine tasks 
training its own personnel and other Marines for further assignments.

     On 10 July 1930, the designation of the regiment was changed to its 
present, permanent title of 1st Marines by a Corps-wide redesignation of 
units.<57> On 1 November 1931, the 1st Marines, as a regiment, was disbanded.  
A large part of its personnel joined the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 
Expeditionary Force organized at Quantico the same date.  On 11 January 1932, 
the battalion, less one company which remained at Quantico, embarked aboard 
the USS NORTHLAND for training maneuvers.  It sailed via the Panama Canal to 
the west coast stopping en route at various coastal cities.  By June, the 
battalion was engaged in short-range battle practice aboard the USS ARKANSAS 
off San Diego, California.  On 1 November, the Battalion was redesignated the 
1st Separate Training Battalion, USS ARKANSAS, and the term "1st Marines" 
disappeared from the active duty lists until World War II again brought its 
colors to the fore.<58>


                                  World War II

     During the years following World War I, the attention of the Marine Corps 
focused on the probability that future actions would require greater emphasis 
on the offensive phase of the advance base concept.  In the reallocation of 
territory after World War I, the Japanese had received the former German 
island possessions in the central Pacific.  These islands, with intensive 
fortification, would become serious barriers to the advance of the United 
States Fleet across the Pacific.<59>


                                      13




 
     The 1st Marines was again organized at Culebra, Puerto Rico, on 1 
February 1941, by putting together parts of the 5th and 7th Marines.<60> The 
regiment, now part of the 1st Marine Division, participated in maneuvers at 
Culebra indoctrinating recently called up reservists, who had made possible 
the rebirth of the 1st Marines.  In May, it was back in the United States, and 
in June and July, it was training intensively in maneuvers off New River, 
North Carolina, where the Marine Corps had acquired the land later to be known 
as Camp Lejeune.  The men of the 1st Marines made life at Tent City as 
comfortable as time and materials would permit.  Training was the order of the 
day with the Marines building their own mock-ups of ships' hulls as well as 
their combat training ranges.<61>

     In February 1942, the 1st Marines was brought up to full strength.  With 
little time to integrate the newly joined officers and men, the regiment was 
off to combat in a few weeks. Under the command of Colonel Clifton B. Cates 
(19th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1948-1952), it moved to the west coast, 
and on 22 June, sailed as part of the second echelon of the 1st Marine 
Division from San Francisco to New Zealand.  With only a few days ashore, the 
regiment left New Zealand on 22 July and sailed with the division for Koro, 
Fiji Island, to rehearse for the Guadalcanal Operation.<62>

     On 31 July, the 1st Marines sailed for Guadalcanal as part of the 1st 
Marine Division to launch the first land offensive of the Pacific War.  On 7 
August, it landed on the island, following the seizure of a beachhead by the 
5th Marines. By the end of the first day, the 1st Marines had seized the 
airfield and the east bank of the Ilu River (thought at the time to be the 
Tenaru).  Other units progressed equally well, but on the beach it was a 
different story.  Unloading was difficult and slow, and Japanese air seized 
its opportunity.  The USS GEORGE F. ELLIOTT was set afire, and with it went 
most of the supplies of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines.  In fear of further 
attacks, the transports shortly withdrew, and the division was left with only 
about half of its supplies and equipment ashore.

     The 1st Marines manned a 600-yard stretch of the Guadalcanal perimeter 
along the banks of the Ilu.  On 19 August, a company-strength patrol forward 
of this position surprised a 34 man Japanese patrol and, in a short fire 
fight, killed 31 of the enemy.  Most of the latter were officers, which 
indicated the Japanese were planning an attack.<63>

     In the early morning of 21 August, a force of 200 Japanese, with more 
following, burst across the sand spit at the mouth of the Ilu into the 
positions of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines.<64> Running into a single strand 
of barbed wire, the wave of enemy was momentarily stopped.  Small-arms fire 
and 37mm cannister took a murderous toll.  Assisted by artillery, tanks, and 
air, the 1st Marines cleaned out the entire force of Japanese taking 15 
prisoners, but leaving 600-700 of Japan's finest troops dead 


                                      14



in the vicinity of the regiment's positions.

     This indoctrination in blood which the Japanese offered the Marines was 
only a taste of what was to come.  Accepting their success with typical Marine 
stoicism, the men of the Regiment maintained a continual alert, patrolling and 
improving their positions, and waiting to see where the enemy would strike 
next.

     They didn't have long to wait, for on the night of 13-14 September, the 
enemy launched a strong attack from the south against the 1st Raider Battalion 
and the Parachute Battalion, which occupied positions along the ridge south of 
the airfield (later known as Bloody Ridge).   As part of this attack, in what 
Colonel Cates termed a "holding attack," a drive was made against the 
positions of the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines. Once again the Japanese were 
repulsed, leaving 200 dead in the wire and field in front of the 1st Marines' 
positions.<65>

     Following this action, the perimeter was reorganized to present a tighter 
defensive position in preparation for the next enemy attack.  The 1st Marines 
retained the responsibility for the east side of the perimeter, an area from 
the mouth of the Ilu River inland to a point beyond the former right flank. 
Later, with more troops available, the perimeter was again reorganized, with 
the regiment occupying a 3,500 yard stretch of jungle from the Lunga River 
west to the inland flank.

     After minor probing punctuated by sporadic artillery and mortar fire, the 
Japanese hit the Marine lines during the latter part of October to again be 
repulsed with a loss of 12 tanks and some 600 troops in the 1st Marines' 
sector.

     The regiment, now well versed in jungle warfare and the techniques of the 
Japanese, waited for the enemy to reveal his intentions.  In December, after 
Army troops took over, the 1st Marines made preparations for leaving 
Guadalcanal, and by 12 January 1943, with combat over for a time, it was in 
Melbourne, Australia.

     On 4 October, the regiment, less its 3d Battalion, sailed for Goodenough 
Island.  By the 25th, with the 3d Battalion again present, the 1st began small 
unit training, and by 1 December, it was again ready for combat.

     On 25 December, under the command of Colonel William J. Whaling, the 
regiment, less its 2d Battalion, sailed to Cape Gloucester.  The next day it 
landed on the heels of the assault waves and moved through the right flank of 
the beach-head up the coast toward the airfield, the main objective of the 
operation, which was secured on the 29th.<66>

     Meanwhile, the 2d Battalion landed on the opposite side of 


                                      15




 
Cape Gloucester on 26 December to block enemy escape routes on the west coast 
and to prevent enemy reinforcements from reaching the airfield.  Shortly after 
midnight on 30 December, an enemy force moved up from the south and attacked 
the battalion's position.  In this action, called the "Battle of Coffin 
Corner," the Marines killed nearly 100 of the enemy and forced the remainder 
of the Japanese to withdraw.  On 11 January 1944, the battalion rejoined the 
regiment in the airfield area.

     On 20 February, B Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines returned to Cape 
Gloucester from reconnoitering Rooke, or Umboi Island, which lies between New 
Britain and New Guinea. On 11 March, the 1st Battalion of the Regiment made an 
unopposed landing at Linga Linga Plantation on Eleanora Bay and after a number 
of successful skirmishes with enemy stragglers, returned to Cape Gloucester on 
the 18th.

     On 25 April, United States Army troops took over Marine responsibilities 
on New Britain, and the 1st Marines left for Pavuvu in the Russell Islands.  
Here, the regiment attempted to rest and ready itself for the next action, but 
the swamp-infested, rain-soaked island had not been readied for the arrival of 
the division.<67> Poor food, difficult living conditions, and lack of 
recreation contributed to much sickness and a low morale.  The limited space 
and shortage of equipment for amphibious training made further combat almost 
desirable.

     On 26 August, all units of the division moved to the Cape Esperance area 
of Guadalcanal for landing rehearsals preparatory for the assault on the 
Palaus Islands.

     On 15 September 1944, the 1st Marines, now under the command of Colonel 
Lewis B. Puller, headed for the shore of Peleliu as the left assault regiment 
of the division.  The Japanese laid down a protective curtain of mortar fire 
covering the area from the edge of the reef to the transfer line.  Some losses 
of personnel and landing craft occurred before the beach was reached, and as 
the assault force moved inland, the mortar barrage followed.  Japanese 
antiboat guns knocked out a number of LVTs and DUKWs leaving them burning at 
the water's edge.

     The assault units of the regiment pushed inland paced by the surviving 
armored amphibians, which served as tanks until the Shermans could be brought 
in.  A number of well organized strong points were overcome with the aid of 
flame throwers and demolitions charges.

     After the first day's objectives had been gained, the Japanese launched a 
series of counterattacks against the positions of the 1st Marines.  These 
drives, including two with tanks, were repulsed in bitter fighting using 
bazookas, Sherman tanks, rocket-firing planes, and even a captured Japanese 
machine gun.


                                      16



     The regiment continued to advance against ever increasing resistance, and 
by the afternoon of the fourth day, it had fought its way to the rampart known 
as "Bloody Nose Ridge," which formed part of the perimeter of the main 
Japanese positions.  Behind this ridge, the enemy had concentrated a number of 
large caliber mortars and artillery pieces which poured a heavy fire on the 
advancing troops and the airfield which was now being readied for Marine use.

     The Marines pushed into this fortified belt and for the next five days, 
the regiment, as part of the division, drove forward, engaging in some of the 
most vicious and costly fighting of the entire Pacific campaign.  On 23 
September, with only a a handful of its men still on their feet, the 1st 
Marines was relieved by Regimental Combat Team 321 of the Army's 81st Infantry 
Division.  The Marine regiment moved to a rest area on the east coast, and on 
the last days of the month, it's weary troops boarded the USS PINKNEY and USS 
TRYON to return to Pavuvu.<68>

     On Pavuvu, the regiment received replacements to fill its depleted ranks.  
By mid-October, the 1st Marines had begun a program of individual and small 
unit training, emphasizing basic fundamentals.  In the months that followed, 
this program was expanded to include company, battalion, and regimental 
exercises.

     On 23 February 1945, the 1st Marines was again at sea, heading for 
Guadalcanal for maneuvers.  On 7 March, a full-scale exercise was held at Cape 
Esperance, but a shortage of landing craft prevented the participation of the 
entire regimental combat team.  A particular shortcoming was that the exercise 
had to be secured on the beach with no maneuver undertaken because of the 
limited space on shore.  During the period 8 - 11 March, the 1st returned to 
Pavuvu to prepare for the largest amphibious operation it had ever been 
in.<69>

     On 15 March, the regiment sailed for Ulithi, Caroline Islands, and a week 
later, it left Ulithi for Okinawa as part of the 1st Marine Division, in turn 
a part of III Amphibious Corps of the Tenth Army.<70>

     On 1 April 1945, the regiment, under the command of Colonel Kenneth B. 
Chappell, began landing on Okinawa.  This time, the 1st was in reserve and 
followed the assault regiments across the beach and inland.  The first 
division objectives were seized by the night of 4 April.  During the rest of 
the month, the 1st Marines was engaged in aggressive patrolling, continually 
seeking the enemy it had come to fight.

     On 30 April, the regiment moved southward, as part of the division, 
against the main enemy positions.  The Japanese employed their best defensive 
tactics, utilizing every position and troop movement, to destroy the attacking 
Marines.  On 4 May, for example, the enemy staged a vigorous counterattack.  
As


                                      17




 
part of this drive, a force of about 600 Japanese attempted a night landing in 
the rear of the 1st Division.  The 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, assisted by a 
platoon of the 3d Armored Amphibian Tractor Company and Company E, 2d 
Battalion, 1st Marines, virtually annihilated the attackers.

     The Marines of the 1st took their turn on the front line during the drive 
southward, taking advantage of the hours of darkness and reduced visibility to 
move up supplies and reinforcements over an ever-lengthening supply route.  
The Japanese tried to exploit night hours by infiltrating Marine positions. 
Numerous grenade and bayonet fights took place in and around foxholes.

     During the latter days of May, torrential downpours bogged logistics in a 
sea of mud and brought the fighting to a virtual stop.  The Marine supply 
continued, as air took over much of that vital mission.  The inclement weather 
also gave the enemy a chance to reevaluate his position, and when the 1st 
again moved towards Shuri Castle and its dominating heights, it found that the 
bulk of the Japanese had withdrawn to other positions.  The Marines pushed on 
to seek them out.

     On the night of 15-16 June, the 1st Marines was reverted to a reserve 
role after its part in the assault was over.

     On 22 June, the Tenth Army announced the termination of hostilities; 
however, enemy stragglers and splinter groups remained scattered and hidden 
throughout southern Okinawa.  Before base development could be carried out 
with any degree of security, it was necessary that the last enemy be 
eliminated. Accordingly, the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions were ordered to 
carry out coordinated mopping up operations within III Amphibious Corps 
boundaries.  To prevent enemy remnants from escaping to the north during this 
drive, the 1st Marines was ordered to establish a blocking line from the 
Kokuba Gawa estuary east along the Naha-Yonabaru roads to the Corps boundary.  
By the end of June, this operation was completed.

     The 1st Marines, now back at the division camp site on Motobu Peninsula, 
soon realized that it had seen its last action in World War II.  The atomic 
bombing of Hiroshima on 6 August and of Nagasaki three days later was followed 
by the Japanese surrender request on the 14th.  Invasion preparations shortly 
came to an end, with the 1st Marines being sent to Tientsin, China, to assist 
in the repatriation of Japanese troops in North China.<71>

     The regiment arrived at Taku on 30 September and moved on to Tientsin 
with the mission of carrying out the provisions of the surrender and 
maintaining order in the Tientsin area.  Here, it guarded property and rounded 
up Japanese repatriates.


                                      18



     These months in China were filled with the problem of keeping aloof from 
the power struggle going on between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists.  
There were no incidents which involved the exchange of shots.  Typical of 
these was that of 6 October 1945.  A rifle platoon of the regiment was 
guarding an engineer group which was attempting to remove roadblocks on the 
Tientsin-Peking highway.  About 22 miles north of Tientsin, the group was 
fired on by an estimated 40 to 50 troops.  Three casualties were sustained by 
the Marines, and at least one of the attackers was believed hit.  Friendly 
Chinese farmers in the area indicated that bands of Communists were operating 
in the locality.

     A week later, when crowds of Chinese attacked Japanese civilians in 
Tientsin, riot squads of the 1st Marines rescued the Japanese and gave warning 
to the local authorities to maintain order or the Marines would.<72>

     During the repatriation of Japanese troops from China, the 1st Marines 
furnished guards on the LSTs operating out of Tientsin-Tangku Harbor.  Many of 
the regiment's Marines took their turn serving as guards riding the railways 
to prevent the theft of rolling stock and to protect bridges.

     In early 1946, as part of a general reassignment of area 
responsibilities, the 1st Marines was charged with the security of the area 
between Langfang and Tientsin's East Station which included a large part of 
the international concession where corps and division service and support 
troops were headquartered.  The 2d Battalion of the regiment was at Peiping, 
with one of its companies providing security for MAG 24's installations at 
South Field.<73> During the summer, incidents between the Marines and 
Communist bands continued.  The desire to remain neutral and the diminution in 
force necessitated a reduction in the division's areas of responsibility.  On 
20 May 1947, as part of the strength reduction, the 1st Marines was 
reorganized into two battalions without a regimental headquarters.<74>

     During the summer of 1947, while still continuing extensive training, the 
regiment prepared to leave China.  On 20 September, the 2d Battalion, 1st 
Marines, reinforced as a BLT, made a full-scale landing near Tsingtao with 
simulated naval gunfire support and overhead cover by Marine air.

     On 31 October, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, was disbanded, and the 2d 
Battalion, 1st Marines, was redesignated 1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force, 
Western Pacific.<75>

     During this period, the 1st Marines was at BLT strength in keeping with 
Marine Corps budgetary restrictions.  With the collapse of the Nationalist 
Chinese forces imminent, the situation became hectic.  Plans for the 
withdrawal of FMFWesPac were kept current.  Throughout the winter of 
1947-1948, garrison 


                                      19




 
life went on as usual despite the ever increasing friction with the 
Communists.  To culminate the training that winter, all companies of the 1st 
Marines were air-lifted in frequent deployment practices, and in June, 
landings were made in conjunction with naval amphibious forces.

     By now, Chinese Communist advances were beginning to threaten United 
States civilians in North China.  Warnings were sent out to evacuate all 
dependents and American nationals desiring to leave.  The Marines were alerted 
to guard American lives, but it was nearly impossible to guard property.

     By December, all dependents were on their way to safety, and most 
civilians who wanted to leave had been evacuated. In January 1949, Tientsin 
and Peiping fell to the Communists, and on the 21st of the month, the regiment 
was alerted to leave China.  In February, it returned to the United States to 
rejoin the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, California.<76> For the 
time, the order of the day for the Marines of the regiment was once again 
getting reacquainted with the country for which it had been fighting or ready 
to fight for nearly seven years. After a few months at Camp Pendleton, the 1st 
Marines was disbanded on 1 October 1949.<77)

     By now, the Marine Corps had established a tradition of being able to 
provide skilled forces to meet emergency situations on short notice.  On 2 
July 1950, when the call for help came from Korea, the Marines answered by 
sending a brigade to the Far East within three weeks.  This force was soon 
bolstered to a full division, and as a part of this new 1st Marine Division, 
the 1st Marines again came into existence on 4 August 1950 by redesignation of 
the 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division.<78>

     On 2 September, the regiment, under the command of Colonel Lewis B. 
Puller, arrived at Kobe, Japan.  In a few short weeks, the 1st Marines had 
been reborn, brought up to combat strength, and carried half way around the 
world.  Now, it had to combat load on LSTs with tentative factors as 
guidelines, since combat plans were still being formulated.  These weren't the 
only problems, for enemy intelligence and information on beach conditions in 
the objective area were practically nonexistent.  The brief speculative 
studies and inadequate photos of the area were available to each unit for only 
a few hours.<79> Time had permitted only the briefest training above the 
company level.  And yet, in spite of these shortcomings, the 1st Marines was 
soon to embark on one of the most famous amphibious assaults in modern 
history.

     On 15 September 1950, the regiment landed at Inchon as an assault 
regiment of the 1st Marine Division.  Landing on the south side of Inchon 
harbor, it advanced rapidly inland, seizing its assigned objectives by night 
fall, in spite of the rain squalls and smoke, which by H-Hour had blotted out 
Beach BLUE to all but the first three waves.


                                      20



     On the following day, Inchon was cleared, and the 1st Marines, advancing 
towards Seoul, helped to take Sosa and Yongdung-po.  By the afternoon of the 
24th, it had taken Hill 79, its first objective in Seoul, and on it hoisted 
the Stars and Stripes.  The regiment continued its drive through the South 
Korean capital for another three days, and by the afternoon of the 27th, the 
city had been won.  On the 28th, the regiment moved out to seize its final 
objective, the high ground to the northeast of Seoul.  The 3d Battalion, 
however, remained in the city to help guard the streets while General Douglas 
MacArthur was present for the liberation ceremonies.  On 7 October, the 
regiment was relieved of its blocking mission on the successfully taken high 
ground to the north of Seoul and moved to Ascom City to prepare for the 
assault on Wonsan.

     The 1st Marines as part of the 1st Marine Division and X Corps was 
scheduled to make an assault landing at Wonsan, on the east coast.  After 
establishing a beachhead, the Corps was to advance westward through the 
Pyongyang-Wonsan corridor and link up with General Walker's army in order to 
trap North Korean troops falling back from the south.<80> However, when Wonsan 
fell to the rapidly advancing South Koreans, the regiment made an 
administrative landing and took up blocking positions in the area.

     By 19 November, the 1st was in position near Chigyong, about six miles 
southwest of Hamhung.  When Chinese Communist forces poured across the Yalu, 
the United Nations unrestricted drive northward was interrupted.  The 
situation deteriorated rapidly, and the 1st Marines was ordered to keep open 
the main supply road of the 1st Marine Division.  The 1st Battalion moved to 
Chinhung-ni to guard the Division railhead.  On the 24th, the 2d Battalion 
moved to Koto-ri, and on the 26th, the 3d Battalion took up positions at 
Hagaru-ri.  By the last four days in November, the positions at Hagaru-ri and 
Koto-ri were under constant attack from large numbers of Chinese Communist 
troops.

     By 3 December, the first elements of the 5th and 7th Marines began 
arriving within the Hagaru perimeter after their breakout from Yudam-ni.  
Reunited within the perimeter, the Division was supplied by air, and more than 
4,000 casualties were evacuated by the same means.  On the 6th, the Division 
column began its breakout from Hagaru to the south, cutting its way through to 
Koto-ri, where more casualties were air-evacuated.

     From Koto-ri to Chinhung-ni the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 1st Marines 
acted as rear guard for the Division and continuously beat off fanatical enemy 
attacks.  Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, fought its way northward from 
Chinhung-ni and, on 8 November, was in position guarding the leading elements 
of the Division train as they began entering the Chinhung-ni perimeter. On 10 
December, the last elements of the 1st Marines left the Koto-ri sector, 


                                      21




 
and in succeeding order, relieved elements of the 7th Marines as rear guards 
for the Division train.  It was not until the afternoon of 11 December that 
the last elements of the Division cleared the railhead at Chinhung-ni.  The 
final firefight of the breakout occurred near Sudong, when the 1st Marines 
drove through an ambush.  By midnight, all units had reached assembly areas in 
the Hungnam-Hamhung area, and the breakout was over.

     By 18 December, the regiment was back at Pusan where it went into 
position north of Masan as part of the 1st Marine Division in Eighth Army 
reserve.  Here, it rested and reorganized for three weeks.

     A new Chinese Communist offensive, which was to penetrate south of Seoul, 
with Pusan its intended objective, began after dark on the night of 31 
December 1950.<81>  As its part in slowing enemy progress, the 1st Marines 
left Masan on 10 January for the Pohang-Andong area to aid in neutralizing a 
North Korean guerrilla division which had infiltrated the area.  The regiment, 
now reinforced, concentrated chiefly at Andong to secure the city and its two 
airfields, with one of its battalions at Uisong to protect the main service 
road.  The next month was spent in extensive patrolling to round up the 
guerrillas of the area.

     On 11 February 1951, the Chinese again attacked, this time on the central 
front.  The 1st Marines, as part of the 1st Marine Division was ordered to 
Chungju to participate in Operation KILLER, a limited Eighth Army offensive.

     Operation RIPPER came next as General Matthew Ridgway continued his 
strategy of keeping the enemy off-balance during preparations for a new 
Chinese counteroffensive.  On 7 March, the 1st Marines, with the 7th Marines 
on its left, began the attack, and within five days, it had progressed to 
Hongchon. Continuing the attack on the 15th, the regiment seized all its 
objectives and reached the vicinity of Wongo-ri in two weeks.

     Upon the launching of still another Chinese counteroffensive on the 22d, 
the 1st Marines was rushed into blocking positions on the left front of the 
1st Marine Division, where the collapse of the 6th ROK Division had left a 
huge gap.  Manning strong points, the regiment employed its air and artillery 
support in conjunction with its organic weapons in perhaps the most desperate 
fighting it had yet experienced.  It met and blunted a series of Chinese 
attacks on Horseshoe Ridge and Hill 902, thereby enabling the division to 
withdraw to more concentrated positions.  By 30 April, the 1st Marines was in 
position in the vicinity of Yangdogwon-ni patrolling and readying itself for 
further enemy aggression.

     On 12 May, the regiment again headed northward.  For the next two weeks, 
it pushed slowly forward against a delaying enemy, and by the 24th, its 
assault battalions had reached a


                                      22



line about five and one-half miles north of Sanggo-ri, where it was again 
relieved.

     On 2 June, the 1st Marines moved against the Chinese in the vicinity of 
Yanggu on the eastern tip of the Hwach'on Reservoir.<82> The drive during the 
rest of the month resulted in the virtual destruction of the Sixth North 
Korean Division.

     During the last two weeks in June and the first part of July, the 1st 
Marines strengthened, consolidated, and patrolled its zone, a five-mile front 
line sector about five and one-half miles southwest of the Punchbowl.(83) On 
16 July, the regiment was again returned to a reserve role.

     After nearly two months of rest, reorganization, and training, the 1st 
relieved the 7th Marines east of the Punchbowl on 12 September.  The fighting 
at this stage was as bitter as any faced by the Marines in Korea, but by the 
end of the month, the main line of resistance had been consolidated on a 
favorable five-mile front in the vicinity of Changhan-Sachon-ni.  On 11 
November, the regiment reverted to 1st Marine Division reserve at Mago-ri.  An 
historical event in the use of the helicopter occurred in this move when for 
the first time an entire battalion (the 2d) was relieved by air from front 
line positions. Back on the line by 11 December, the 1st Marines continued to 
patrol and improve its positions.

     On 18 February 1952, the regiment was relieved by the 5th Marines and 
moved into 1st Marine Division reserve in the vicinity or Imje.  A month 
later, it moved by sea around Korea to Inchon, and by 24 March, it occupied 
part of the division front near Panmunjom.  April and May were spent in 
occupying and improving the MLR.  When again in reserve near Inchon, the 1st 
Marines engaged in a period of concentrated amphibious training, including 
transport by helicopter.

     On 27 July, the 1st was once more on the line.  During this period, it 
was charged with the organization of the "Rescue Task Force" for the United 
Nations Truce Team at Panmunjom.  The Rescue Task Force, consisting of a 
reinforced rifle company, including tank and artillery support, rendezvoused 
near Panmunjom each time the Truce Teams were in session prepared to move in 
quickly to move the United Nations delegation to safety upon the prearranged 
signal "Need Aid."

     In August 1952, action along the 1st Marine Division forward position was 
more intense than in any previous period since the Marines arrived on the 
Western Front.  The most persistent efforts of the enemy were centered around 
Bunker and Siberia Hills in the sector of the 1st Marines.  After many heavy 
fire-fights, Marines of the 1st helped take Bunker Hill. During its remaining 
stay on the front, the regiment continued to resist enemy probes and 
effectively held its position.


                                      23




 
     During the front line duty of the 1st Marines from November 1952 to 
January 1953, enemy action was light, with no large-scale attacks developing.  
The regiment patrolled, consolidated, and strengthened its positions.  Night 
patrols were sent out, ambushes were laid, and counterreconnaissance 
activities were performed.

     By 10 February, the 1st was again on the line after a brief rest.  A 
quiet five weeks was followed by renewed enemy activity all along the line 
during the period 18-29 March.  In the 1st Marines sector, the enemy attacked 
positions on Hills Hedy, Bunker, Esther, Dagmar, and Kate, but each attack was 
repulsed, and the enemy retired to his original positions, sustaining heavy 
casualties.

     On 5 May, the regiment reverted to the reserve where it remained 
throughout most of the summer.  On 27 July, the Korean War officially ended, 
but the alert continued.  During September, the 1st Marines, still in reserve, 
maintained one battalion in constant readiness to move into the Demilitarized 
Zone to repel any force which might attempt to recover or molest nonrepatriate 
prisoners of war and to cover the evacuation of nonrepatriates.

     By 9 October, the regiment was again on the front, manning the center of 
the Division zone.  In January 1954, it assisted in the return of 
nonrepatriate prisoners of war to the United Nations.  On 27 February, it 
again took up a reserve role.

     From 25-30 April, the 1st Marines participated in a regimental landing 
team exercise (RLT-LEX).  From 1-10 May, it conducted a more extensive RLT-LEX 
which included two landings on the beaches of Sokcho-ri.

     During the next six months, the regiment continued its mission, off and 
on the MLR, ever alert for whatever might happen. Meanwhile, training was 
conducted as time permitted.  Small unit training was stressed as it was 
seldom possible to spare more than a company at a time from the primary 
mission.  But, through careful planning, often involving intricate reliefs of 
MLR positions, battalions occasionally engaged in training on that level.  
Command post exercises (CPXs), involving the command and staff and 
communications personnel, were held quite frequently.  The culmination of the 
summer's training was a five-day exercise by the entire regiment, including a 
landing on the island of Tokckok-to.  During December and extending into the 
following months, the 1st participated in an extensive refurbishing of the 
MLR.

     On 17 March 1955, the 1st Marines was relieved of its MLR 
responsibilities for the last time, and on 1 and 3 April, its two echelons 
sailed for the United States.


                                      24



     The regiment arrived home between 16-22 April, after having spent nearly 
12 of the preceding 13 years facing an actual or potential enemy.  To its 
colors it had added ten streamers and three Presidential Unit Citations earned 
through the bitter struggles of Korea.  For nearly six decades, war and 
threats of war had found the 1st Marines ready to do its part in preserving 
the American way of life.

     After a brief pause to permit their Marines considerable leave and 
liberty, units of the regiment embarked on another training cycle designed to 
maintain their tradition of readiness.  During the next few years, exercises 
from small unit level to that of a division/wing force was conducted 
frequently.  Marines of the 1st took part in landings by helicopter and by 
landing craft over Pendleton's beaches, under went training at Bridgeport's 
Cold Weather Training Center, and have experienced the stifling heat of the 
Mojave Desert. New weapons were phased into the various units of the regiment, 
while much emphasis has been placed on night operations and the various 
ramifications of counterguerrilla combat.<84>

     On 17 March 1959, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, initiated the 
transplacement program, currently in effect, which calls for organizing and 
training a unit, such as an infantry battalion, at Camp Pendleton, and then 
moving the trained unit to Okinawa, where it becomes a unit of the 3d Marine 
Division.  In turn, a similar sized unit from that division returned to 
Pendleton, where, over a period of months, it was re-organized and trained to 
await its turn for a tour overseas.

     During the next three and a half years, the regiment participated in 
numerous training exercises at sea and in the deserts of California.  A 
training heli-lift operation held in early October 1962 became the rehearsal 
for a real crisis which developed two weeks later.

     On 15 October 1962, aerial photographs were analyzed and the presence of 
strategic missiles and sites in Cuba was indicated.  After a quarantine of 
Cuba was ordered by the President, the units which were to participate in the 
blockade were alerted.  At 1100 on 19 October, Major General Herman Nickerson, 
Commanding General, 1st Marine Division, ordered Lieutenant Colonel William 
Geftman, Commanding Officer, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines to prepare for 
deployment.  The 2d Battalion was the Division's Ready BLT, so that by 2100, 
only 10 hours after receiving the order, all units of the battalion were ready 
for airlift.  It was not until Saturday, 20 October, that the order was given 
to move out and the Marines moved by bus to El Toro and the waiting airplanes.

     Five and a half hours later, on Sunday the 21st, the first elements of 
the battalion were at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, ready to be transported to their 
positions along the barrier separating 


                                      25




 
the base from Cuban territory.  Less than an hour after arriving, the men of 
2/1 were in their places on the defense lines. <85>

     Guantanamo had been reinforced and the order to activate the 5th MEB, 
commanded by Brigadier General William T. Fairbourn, had been issued before 
most of the American people were aware that the crisis had developed.  On 22 
October, President Kennedy told the nation of the grave danger to its security 
poised only 90 miles from Florida.  He announced the ultimatum which he had 
presented to the Soviets; the missiles would be dismantled and removed from 
Cuba, meanwhile the United States would maintain a quarantine of the island.

     With the activation order, the 1st and 3d Battalions of the 1st Marines 
began organizing for deployment with the 5th MEB.  On the 26th, only 96 hours 
after being activated, the MEB began departing San Diego and Del Mar, 
California; the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, on board the USS HENRICO and 3/1 
on board the USS IWO JIMA.

     At Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, the brigade reorganized and came under the 
operational control of CinCLant, took on additional support personnel and 
supplies, and in some instances tranferred from one ship to another.  
Companies C and D, 1/1, left the USS HENRICO and sailed from Panama on board 
the USS BEXAR on 7 November.<86>  For a month, the 5th MEB helped to maintain 
the quarantine of Cuba within the "interception area" specified as a 500-mile 
radius centered on Havana.<87>

     The dismantling of the missile sites by the Russians brought about the 
order to return to Camp Pendleton.  On 1 December, 1/1 and 3/1, on board the 
USS BEXAR, BAYFIELD, and the OKANAGAN, arrived at Guantanamo, and departed the 
next day with the 2d Battalion on board.  The regiment arrived at Camp 
Pendleton on 14 December 1962.<88>

     The Cuban Crisis was the first direct confrontation of the United States 
and Russia since both nations developed nuclear weapons and the capability to 
deliver them.  As a result of this confrontation, Khrushchev backed down under 
pressure, and the prestige of the United States was greatly enhanced.  In this 
crisis, the Marines showed their ability to respond quickly in an emergency.  
As Marine Corps Commandant David M. Shoup stated on an inspection trip to 
Guantanamo, "When the government said get in, we got in in a hurry...."<89>

     Following the Cuban Crisis, the regiment continued to maintain a state of 
readiness through training exercises and the transplacement program with the 
3d Division in Okinawa until the summer of 1965 when the regiment was ordered 
to join the III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) in Vietnam.

     After the landing of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade


                                      26



in South Vietnam in March 1965, the Marine Corps continued to build up its 
force there as the United States increased its effort to rid the country of 
the Viet Cong supported by North Vietnam in a war of "national liberation."  
On 28 July, President Johnson announced that the United States would increase 
its strength in Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000 men "almost immediately."

     In August, the 1st Marines began deployment to the III MAF.  The 1st 
Battalion sailed from Long Beach, California on 9 August and landed at Da 
Nang, Republic of Vietnam (RVN), on the 25th.  The 2d Battalion departed San 
Diego the 10th of August and sailed to Okinawa, from which it sailed for two 
months of duty in the vicinity of the Philippine Islands.  On 22 November, the 
battalion disembarked at Hue-Phu Bai, RVN.  The Regimental Headquarters, under 
the command of Colonel Byron B. Mitchell, landed at Chu Lai, RVN, on 16 
January 1966.  There it came under the operational control of the 3d Division 
until 28 March 1966, when it returned to the control of the 1st Division.  
Meanwhile, the 3d Battalion had departed Long Beach, California on 23 August 
and had arrived at Okinawa, where it spent several months in training before 
embarking as a BLT on 13 January 1966.  The battalion landed in the Chu Lai 
area on 28 January.<90>

     Only two weeks after its arrival in-country, the 2d Battalion took part 
in an operation which was to bring the unit a Navy Unit Commendation streamer.  
In a valley 30 miles south of Da Nang, the Viet Cong (VC) were known to be 
gathering in force for an attack on Que Son.  Intelligence reports showed that 
the 1st Viet Cong Regiment, 3 separate VC battalions, and several companies 
and smaller units were preparing for battle.  The 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 
joined 2/7, 3/3, and four ARVN battalions in Operation HARVEST MOON which 
continued from 8 December to 20 December 1965, resulting in more than 400 
confirmed VC killed.  At the end of the operation, the valley was under 
government control for the first time in many years.<91>

     In the months that followed, units organic to the regiment participated 
in many operations including Operations UTAH, IOWA and CHEYENNE I and II.  
During this time numerous company-sized search and destroy missions and small 
unit patrols were also conducted in its Tactical Area of Responsibility 
(TAOR).

     In July 1966, the regiment took part in another well-known operation, 
HASTINGS,  a search and destroy operation north of Hue.  The operation began 
with a reconnaissance mission by 2/1 and a reconnaissance company in response 
to intelligence reports that a North Vietnamese division was south of the 
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).  The operation expanded, and on the 16th, 1/1 was 
lifted to Dong Ha to participate in it.  More than 800 enemy troops were 
killed during HASTINGS.

     The regiment remained in the Da Nang vicinity during the 


                                      27




 
rest of 1966 and much of 1967 continuing to conduct operations against the VC.  
On 5 October 1967, the 1st and 2d Battalions, with the Regimental 
Headquarters, moved northward as the Marines in that area met heavy enemy 
resistance close to the DMZ.  The new TAOR assigned to the regiment was in the 
Quang Tri City area.  The first major action in this TAOR was Operation MEDINA 
which began on the 11th, only six days after the regiment arrived, and 
concluded on 20 October.<92>

     In addition to operations directed against organized armed forces, the 
regiment was called upon to direct civic action operations in an effort to win 
the support of the rural population for the government of South Vietnam.  The 
Marines attempted to gain the confidence of the people and to win their 
loyalty.  During its first few months in Vietnam, the regiment began a program 
which has expanded as its TAOR and resources have increased.  One of the first 
projects was to provide medical treatment for the people.  In some areas, many 
of the people had never seen a doctor.  Clinics were set up and the people 
were treated and were given soap and told how to use it.  Often, search and 
destroy missions provided the means to bring medical care to the local 
population  Search and destroy missions were followed at other times by a 
psychological warfare approach which later became known as County Fair.  While 
a village was searched and its population screened for possible VC, the 
residents were shown movies, entertained by music and games, given medical 
treatment, and were told about the government and its programs.

     As the Marines came to know the country, they were able to see the need 
for helping the Vietnamese improve their living conditions.  With the aid of 
Marines, schools were built in many villages and playgrounds were constructed 
for the children.  Roads and bridges which enabled the people to communicate 
with the outside had often been destroyed by the VC and Marines helped the 
people rebuild these after wresting an area away from the VC.  Marines have 
also constructed many new bridges and have carried on an extensive 
well-building program.

     The 1st Marines continue to wage the psychological battle against the VC 
in the villages and homes of the civilians just as they continue to wage the 
military war in the battlefield.


                                      28



                                   NOTES

(1) Prior to September 1900, there was wide disparity concerning the proper 
title of the Marine Philippine Force.  Brigadier General Commandant Charles 
Heywood, in his Annual Report for 1900, cites the Philippine Force as "the 
First Regiment of Marines." CMC, "Annual Report"...in "Report of the Secretary 
of the Navy, 1900" (Washington, 1900), pp. 1102, 1116, and 1129, hereafter 
"CMC Report" with year.

(2) "History of U. S. Marine Corps Activities at Subic Bay, P. I., 1899-1955" 
(MS, HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC), hereafter "Subic Bay".

(3) Ernest H. Giusti, "Early Days of the 1st Marines, 1899-1909" --- Marine 
Corps Historical Reference Series No. 5 (1st Revision, 1959) (HistBr, G-3, 
HQMC), p. 3.  (Unless otherwise noted, the following account is based on this 
work).

(4) "Subic Bay", p. 7.  From the time of his arrival in the Philippines in 
April 1899, Colonel Pope called his command "Manila Battalion." "CMC Report", 
1899, p. 931.  Lieutenant Colonel Elliott, succeeding Pope as the Commanding 
Officer of the Philippine Force on 8 October 1899, called his command "Marine 
Brigade," although it was not until after September 1900 that official orders 
were promulgated organizing the brigade.  "CMC Report", 1899, pp. 920-921.  
Muster Rolls of the 1st Regiment commence 1 January 1900, which date is the 
birth date of the 1st Regiment.  Muster Rolls, 1st Regiment, Jan00 (Unit Diary 
Section, Personnel Department, HQMC), hereafter "Muster Rolls", with unit, 
month, and year.

(5) "CMC Report", 1900, p. 1104.

(6) "Subic Bay", p. 8ff.

(7) Clyde H. Metcalf, "A History of the United States Marine Corps" (New York: 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939), p. 280ff, hereafter Metcalf, "USMC History".

(8) "CMC Report", 1900, pp. 1148-1149.

(9) Ibid., p. 1150ff.

(10) "CMC Report", 1901, p. 1277.

(11) Ibid., p. 1278; Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 285.

(12) "Subic Bay", p. 11.

(13) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Sep00


                                      29




 
(14) Joel D. Thacker, "Stand Gentlemen, He Served on Samar!," Mar45 (MS, 
HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC).

(15) "CMC Report", 1902, p. 1266.

(16) General Board endorsement on CinCAF ltr No. 60-D dtd 2May03 to SecNav 
(General Board Files, No. 432, Naval History Division).

(17) "CMC Report", 1904, p. 1188.

(18) "CMC Report", 1905, p. 1233.

(19) "Subic Bay", p. 33.

(20) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Apr14.  (See Appendix A to determine if 
particular "1st Regiments" were disbanded or reorganized).

(21) "CMC Report", 1904, p. 19.  During the same years that a 1st Regiment was 
stationed in the Philippines, other regiments were organized from time to time 
for service in Latin America.  The existence of two 1st Regiments at the same 
time resulted from a Marine Corps policy to form provisional troop units for 
expeditionary service as the need arose.  Provisional regiments organized 
under this policy were numbered consecutively beginning with the 1st, 
regardless of the existence of the 1st Regiment in the Philippines.

(22) Clyde A. Metcalf, "American Intervention in Panama" (MS, Panama file, 
HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC) p. 17.

(23) On 20-21 June 1908, an Expeditionary Regiment joined the permanent 
battalion at Camp Elliott to assure a peaceful election in the Canal Zone.  On 
11 December 1909, an Expeditionary Brigade of two regiments served in 
Panamanian waters.  "CMC Report", 1908 and 1909.  It cannot be determined if 
these regiments were designated "1st." Only those regiments designated "1st" 
or "first" in muster rolls and unit diaries are chronologically treated herein 
as of date of activation.

(24) No organization date for this regiment is specifically reported in the 
muster rolls, but most officers reported on 22 September with the first muster 
roll being that of October 1906.  "Muster Rolls", 1st Expeditionary Regiment, 
Oct06.

(25) Thomas A. Bailey, "A Diplomatic History of the American People" (New 
York: F. S. Crofts & Co., 1947), p. 549.

(26) "CMC Report", 1906, p. 318.


                                      30



(27) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 322.

(28) "CMC Report", 1910, p. 803.

(29) "CMC Report", 1911, p,. 530.

(30) "Army and Navy Journal", Vol. 48 (1910-1911), No. 41 (19 June 1911), p. 
1241.

(31) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jun11.

(32) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Aug-Sep11.

(33) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 326.

(34) "Muster Rolls", 1st Provisional Regiment, Aug12.

(35) Metcalf, "op. cit.", pp. 415-416; "Muster Rolls", 1st Provisional 
Regiment, Aug12-Jan13.

(36) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Feb-May13.

(37) "CMC Report", 1913, p. 543; "Muster Rolls", 1st Advance Base Regiment, 
Jul13.  This regiment was designed to be made up of specialists for fixed 
defense activities of a permanent advance base force.  The 2d Advance Base 
Regiment was to be composed of infantry and artillery for mobile defense 
service by the force.

(38) "CMC Report", 1914, p. 470ff.  With the formation of this brigade the 
Advance Base Force came into being.  It was composed of two permanently 
organized regiments, each tailored to its specific part in the advance base 
force concept. At the same time, numerical designations for companies were 
adopted to alleviate the problem of having more than one Company A, for 
example, in any one expeditionary force.

(39) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Feb14.

(40) Kenneth W. Condit and Edwin T. Turnbladh, "Hold High the Torch, A History 
of the 4th Marines" (Washington: HistBr, G-3 ,HQMC, 1960), p. 12.

(41) "CMC Report", 1914, p. 470ff.

(42) "CMC Report", 1915, p. 662.

(43) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Dec14.

(44) Dana G. Munro, "The United States and the Caribbean Area" (Boston: 
Little, Brown and Company, 1941), p. 151.


                                      31




 
(45) "CMC Report", 1915, p. 662.

(46) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jul16.

(47) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Dec16.

(48) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jan17; "CMC Report", 1917, p. 840.

(49) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 456.

(50) Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl, "The U. S. Marines and Amphibious 
War" (Princeton: The Princeton University Press, 1951), p. 23.

(51) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Nov-Dec18; Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 337.

(52) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jun19-Apr22.

(53) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Aug22.

(54) Metcalf, "USMC History", pp. 368-369.

(55) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jul24.

(56) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Mar25.

(57) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Jul30.

(58) "Muster Rolls", 1st Battalion, 1st Marine:, Nov31-Nov32.

(59) LtCol Frank O. Hough, USMCR, Maj Verle E. Ludwig, USMC, and Henry I. 
Shaw, Jr., "Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, History of U. S. Marine Corps 
Operations World War II", Vol. I (Washington: HistBr, G-3 HQMC, 1959) , p. 10, 
is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account.

(60) George McMillan, "The Old Breed, A History of the First Marine Division 
in War II" (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1949) , p. 6, hereafter 
McMillan, "The Old Breed".

(61) Ibid., p. 11.

(62) Ibid., p. 22.

(63) Ibid., p. 56.

(64) John L. Zimmerman "The Guadalcanal Campaign" (Washington: HistDiv, HQMC, 
1949) p. 65ff., hereafter Zimmerman, "Guadalcanal".


                                      32



(65) Zimmerman, "Guadalcanal", p. 84ff.

(66) LtCol Frank O. Rough and Maj John A. Crown, "The Campaign of New Britain" 
(Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1952), p. 54, is unless otherwise cited, the 
basis or the account of the 1st Marines on New Britain.

(67) Maj Frank O. Hough, "The Assault on Peleliu" (Washington: HistDiv, HQMC, 
1950), p. 25ff, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account 
of the 1st Marines on Peleliu.

(68) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct44.

(69) McMillan, "The Old Breed", pp. 352-353.

(70) Maj Chas. S. Nichols, Jr., and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "Okinawa:  Victors in 
the Pacific" (Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1955), pp. 18-19, is unless 
otherwise cited, the basis of the following account of the 1st Marines on 
Okinawa.

(71) Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "North China Marines" (MS, HistBr, G-3, HQMC), is 
unless otherwise cited, the source of the following account of the 1st Marines
in China.

(72) McMillan, "The Old Breed", p. 432ff.

(73) 1st Marine Division War Diary, Apr46 (HistBr, G-3, HQMC).

(74) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, May47.

(75) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct47.

(76) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Feb49.

(77) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct49.

(78) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Aug50.

(79) Lynn Montross and Capt Nicholas A. Canzona, "The Inchon-Seoul Operation 
--- U. S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953", Vol. II (Washington:  
HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1955), p. 114, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the 
following account.

(80) Lynn Montross and Capt Nicholas A. Canzona, "The Chosin Reservoir 
Campaign --- U. S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953", Vol. III 
(Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1959), p. 9, is unless otherwise cited, the 
basis or the following account.


                                      33




 
(81) Lynn Montross, "East Korea, 1951-1952" (MS, HistBr, G-3 HQMC), p. III:13, 
is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account.

(82) John Miller, Jr., "et. al.", "Korea, 1951 - 1953" (Washington: Office of 
the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1958), p. 110.

(83) 1st Marines Historical Diary, Jun-Jul51, (HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC).

(84) Exercise Reference (Exercise Schedules and Lists), HistBr, G-3 Archives, 
HQMC, presents exercises participated in by 1st Marines in recent years.  
Specific exercises are not commented on herein because of classification 
restrictions.

(85) LCpl Don Floyd, "The 2d Bn, 1st Marines Take Position at Guantanamo Bay," 
"Pendleton Scout", 14Dec62, pp.4-5.

(86) MSgt Walter Stewart, "50 Days with the MEB," "Pendleton Scout", 21Dec62, 
pp. 7-10.

(87) Department of Defense, "Chronology of the Cuban Crisis", (Washington, 
1962), p. 15.

(88) Unit Diary, Dec62.

(89) "Newsweek", vol. LX, no. 22, 26Nov 62, p. 18.

(90) Unit diaries, 1965-1966.

(91) Sgt Frank Beardsley, "Harvest Moon," "Leatherneck", vol I, no. 4, Apr66, 
pp. 38-43.

(92) Commanding Officer, 1st Marines, ltr to CMC, dtd 26Oct67, Subj: Updating 
"A Brief History of the 1st Marines" (Unit Files, Historical Branch, HQMC).


                                      34



                                  APPENDIX A


                  COMMANDING OFFICERS, 1ST MARINES, 1900-1967

Since 1900 there have been a number of regimental organizations in the Marine 
Corps bearing the designation "First."  The list that follows enumerates the 
commanding officers of all of these regiments entered chronologically by the 
date of activation of the particular regiment.  A series of asterisks have 
been used at the end of particular rosters to indicate total disbandment of a 
regiment.  Absence of asterisks indicates a redesignation.

                            1st Regiment, Marines

NOTE:  This unit was composed of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Battalions of Marines 
which had been in the Philippines since April, September, and December 1899, 
respectively.

*LtCol    George F. Elliott           1 Jan 1900 -  6 Jan 1900
 Col      Robert L. Meade             7 Jan 1900 - 25 Jul 1900
 Maj      Littleton W. T. Waller     26 Jul 1900 - 31 Jul 1900
*Maj      William P. Biddle           1 Aug 1900 - 10 Sep 1900
 Col      Henry C. Cochrane          11 Sep 1900 -  2 Jan 1901
 LtCol    Mancil C. Goodrell          3 Jan 1901 -  5 May 1901
          None shown
*Maj      William P. Biddle          31 May 1901 - 26 Jan 1902
 LtCol    Mancil C. Goodrell         27 Jan 1902 - 20 Jan 1903
*Maj      William P. Biddle          21 Jan 1903 - 27 Jan 1903
 Maj      Thomas N. Wood             28 Jan 1903 - 27 Mar 1903
 LtCol    Otway C. Berryman          28 Mar 1903 - 18 Aug 1903
 Maj      Con M. Perkins             19 Aug 1903 - 25 Oct 1903
 LtCol    Paul StC. Murphy           26 Oct 1903 -  3 Aug 1904
 Maj      Joseph H. Pendleton         4 Aug 1904 -  4 Apr 1905
 Maj      Thomas C. Treadwell         5 Apr 1905 - 12 May 1905
 Capt     Frederic L . Bradman       13 May 1905 - 16 May 1905
 Maj      Lewis C. Lucas             17 May 1905 -  5 Jul 1905
 Maj      Joseph H. Pendleton         6 Jul 1905 - 30 Sep 1905
 Capt     Henry C. Bisset             1 Oct 1905 -  5 Nov 1905
 Maj      Joseph H. Pendleton         6 Nov 1905 - 26 Jan 1906
 Capt     Henry C. Bisset            27 Jan 1906 - 28 Feb 1906
 Capt     John H. A. Day              1 Mar 1906 - 31 Mar 1906
 Capt     Henry C. Davis              1 Apr 1906 - 30 Apr 1906
 Capt     George C. Reid              1 May 1906 - 31 May 1906
 Capt     Melville J. Shaw            1 Jun 1906 -  5 Sep 1906
 Maj      John T. Meyers              6 Sep 1906 - 23 Nov 1906    
 Capt     Henry Lee                  24 Nov 1906 -  9 Dec 1906
 Maj      John T. Meyers             10 Dec 1906 -  8 Jan 1907
 Capt     George C. Reid              9 Jan 1907 - 31 Jan 1907
 Capt     Melville J. Shaw            1 Feb 1907 - 28 Feb 1907


                                      35




 
 Capt     George C. Reid              1 Mar 1907 -  8 Apr 1907
 LtCol    James E. Mahoney            9 Apr 1907 -  9 Aug 1907
 Capt     Melville J. Shaw           10 Aug 1907 - 17 Oct 1907
 LtCol    James E. Mahoney           18 Oct 1907 -  5 Apr 1908
 Maj      Melville J. Shaw            6 Apr 1908 -  9 Dec 1908
 Capt     Randolph C. Berkeley       10 Dec 1908 - 16 Jul 1909
 Capt     Ernest E. West             17 Jul 1909 - 23 Aug 1909
 Capt     Randolph C. Berkeley       24 Aug 1909 -  8 Sep 1909
 Capt     Thomas F. Lyons             9 Sep 1909 -  8 Nov 1909
 Capt     Randolph C. Berkeley        9 Nov 1909 - 26 Jan 1910
 Maj      Thomas C. Treadwell        27 Jan 1910 - 17 Mar 1910
 Capt     Randolph C. Berkeley       18 Mar 1910 -  9 May 1910
 Maj      Thomas C. Treadwell        10 May 1910 -  7 Dec 1910
 Maj      Newt H. Hall                8 Dec 1910 - 12 Mar 1911
 Capt     Herbert J. Hirshinger      13 Mar 1911 - 17 Apr 1911
 Capt     James McE. Huey            18 Apr 1911 -  8 Sep 1911
 Maj      Philip M. Bannon            9 Sep 1911 - 14 Oct 1912
          None shown
 Maj      Newt H. Hall               18 Oct 1912 - 15 Apr 1913
 Maj      Henry C. Davis             16 Apr 1913 - 19 Jan 1914
 
                             * * * * * * * * * * 
                                   
                                 1st Regiment

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Empire, Panama, as part of the Marine 
Brigade sent to stabilize the Panamanian Isthmus.

*LtCol  William P. Biddle             3 Jan 1904 - 25 Feb 1904

                             * * * * * * * * * *

                          1st Expeditionary Regiment

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in Cuba.

*LtCol  George Barnett                1 Oct 1906 - 31 Oct 1906

                     1st Provisional Regiment, 1st Brigade

LtCol   Franklin J. Moses             1 Nov 1906 - 17 Mar 1908
Maj     Theodore P. Kane             18 Mar 1908 - 31 Mar 1908
LtCol   Franklin J. Moses             1 Apr 1908 - 23 Jan 1909

                             * * * * * * * * * *

                    1st Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Philadelphia on board the USS PRAIRIE for 
expeditionary duty in Cuba.

*Col    George Barnett                8 Mar 1911 - 22 Jun 1911                   

                             * * * * * * * * * *


                                      36



                           1st Provisional Regiment

NOTE:  This unit was organized for expeditionary duty in Cuba utilizing a 
cadre of the Advance Base School, Marine Barracks, Philadelphia.

 Col    Lincoln Karmany              23 May 1912 - 6 Jun 1912
*Col    George Barnett                7 Jun 1912 - 4 Aug 1912

                             * * * * * * * * * *

                           1st Provisional Regiment

NOTE:  This regiment was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in 
Nicaragua.

 Col    Joseph H. Pendleton          21 Aug 1912 - 18 Oct 1912
 LtCol  Charles G. Long              19 Oct 1912 - 31 Oct 1912
 Col    Joseph H. Pendleton           1 Nov 1912 -  7 Dec 1912
 Maj    William B. McKelvy            8 Dec 1912 -  6 Jan 1913

                              * * * * * * * * * *

                      1st Regiment, 2d Provisional Brigade

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in Cuba.

*Col    George Barnett               20 Feb 1913 -  3 May 1913

                              * * * * * * * * * *

                           1st Advance Base Regiment

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Advance Base School, Marine Barracks, 
Philadelphia.

 LtCol  Charles G. Long              19 May 1913 - 17 Feb 1914

                    1st Regiment, 1st Advance Base Brigade

 LtCol  Charles G. Long              18 Feb 1914 - 21 Apr 1914

                          1st Regiment, 1st Brigade

 LtCol  Charles G. Long              22 Apr 1914 -  5 May 1914
 Col    James E. Mahoney              6 May 1914 -  4 Dec 1914
 LtCol  Charles G. Long               5 Dec 1914 -  7 Aug 1915
 Col    Theodore P. Kane              8 Aug 1915 - 15 Aug 1915
 Col    Eli K. Cole                  16 Aug 1915 -  8 May 1916
 LtCol  Laurence H. Moses             9 May 1916 - 24 Jun 1916
 Col    Eli K. Cole                  25 Jun 1916 - 30 Jun 1916


                                      37




 
NOTE:  The 1st and 2d Regiments exchanged designations in Santo Domingo, 
Dominican Republic, 1 Jul 1916.

 Col     Theodore P. Kane             1 Jul 1916 - 11 Aug 1916
 Maj     Hiram I. Bearss             12 Aug 1916 - 17 Oct 1916
 Col     Theodore P. Kane            18 Oct 1916 - 31 Oct 1916
         None shown                   1 Nov 1916 - 31 Dec 1916

                              * * * * * * * * * *

                       1st Regiment, Fixed Defense Force

NOTE:  The unit was organized at Philadelphia from companies formerly attached 
to the 1st Regiment disbanded at Santo Domingo City, 31 Dec 1916.

 Col    Charles G. Long              25 Jan 1917 -  4 Sep 1917
*Col    Ben H. Fuller                 5 Sep 1917 - 31 Jul 1918
*BGen   Ben H. Fuller                 1 Aug 1918 - 30 Aug 1918
 Col    Thomas C. Treadwell          31 Aug 1918 - 30 Nov 1918

                     1st Regiment, 6th Provisional Brigade

 Col    Thomas C. Treadwell           1 Dec 1918 - 20 Jan 1919
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene             21 Jan 1919 - 22 Feb 1919
 Col    Louis M. Gulick              23 Feb 1919 - 14 Apr 1919
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene             15 Apr 1919 - 28 Apr 1919
 Col    Charles S. Hill              29 Apr 1919 - 27 Jun 1919

                                 1st Regiment

 Col    Charles S. Hill              28 Jun 1919 -  6 Aug 1919
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene              7 Aug 1919 - 18 Sep 1919
 LtCol  Alexander S. Williams        19 Sep 1919 - 25 Sep 1919
 Col    Harry Lee                    26 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920
 Maj    William P. Upshur            15 May 1920 - 30 Sep 1920
 Capt   Thomas J. Curtis              1 Oct 1920 - 17 Oct 1920

                          1st Regiment, 3d Brigade

 1stLt  Oliver T. Francis         18 Oct 1920 - 10 Nov 1920
 2dLt   Augustus Aiken            11 Nov 1920 -  5 Jan 1921
        (Changed name to William Warren Aiken - Dec 1920)
 Capt   Lucian W. Burnham          6 Jan 1921 -  7 May 1921
 LtCol  Frederic M. Wise           8 May 1921        - 11 Oct 1921
 Maj    Samuel P. Budd            12 Oct 1921 - 22 Oct 1921
 LtCol  Frederic M. Wise          23 Oct 1921 - 20 Jan 1922
 Col    Frederic M. Wise          21 Jan 1922 - 11 Apr 1922
 Capt   John F. Blanton           12 Apr 1922 - 22 Apr 1922

                             * * * * * * * * * *


                                      38



                           1st Regiment, 2d Brigade

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic, by 
redesignation from the 3d Regiment, 2d Brigade.

 Col    Charles C. Carpenter          1 Aug 1922 - 23 Jan 1923
 LtCol  Edward P. Manwaring          24 Jan 1923 -  5 Feb 1923
 Col    Charles C. Carpenter          6 Feb 1923 - 18 Jul 1923
 LtCol  Charles T. Westcott          19 Jul 1923 - 31 Aug 1923
 Col    Charles C. Carpenter          1 Sep 1923 - 11 May 1924
 Col    Harold C. Snyder             12 May 1924 -  1 Jul 1924

                            * * * * * * * * * *

                               1st Regiment

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Marine Barracks, Quantico.

 LtCol  Edward A. Greene             15 Mar 1925 - 23 Mar 1925
 Col    Charles C. Carpenter         24 Mar 1925 - 30 Apr 1925
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene              1 May 1925 - 31 Oct 1925
 Capt   Robert C. Anthony             1 Nov 1925 - 30 Nov 1925
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene              1 Dec 1925 - 15 Dec 1925
 Capt   Robert C. Anthony            16 Dec 1925 -  1 Jan 1926
 LtCol  Edward A. Greene              2 Jan 1926 - 24 Jan 1926
 Maj    George H. Osterhaut, Jr.     25 Jan 1926 - 30 Apr 1926
 Maj    Harry W. Weitzel              1 May 1926 - 31 May 1926
 LtCol  Theodore E. Backstrom         1 Jun 1926 - 17 Aug 1926
 Capt   Merwin H. Silverthorn        18 Aug 1926 - 30 Aug 1926
 Col    Randolph C. Berkeley         31 Aug 1926 -  8 May 1927
 Capt   Merwin H. Silverthorn         9 May 1927 - 15 Jun 1927
 Maj    William S. Harrison          16 Jun 1927 -  3 Aug 1927
 Capt   James M. Bain                 4 Aug 1927 - 20 Sep 1927
 Maj    William S. Harrison          21 Sep 1927 - 13 Nov 1927
 Col    Randolph C. Berkeley         14 Nov 1927 - 28 Dec 1927
 Maj    William S. Harrison          29 Dec 1927 - 20 Feb 1928
 Maj    Maurice E. Shearer           21 Feb 1928 -  7 Mar 1928
 Col    Randolph C. Berkeley          8 Mar 1928 - 24 May 1928
 Capt   Emmett W. Skinner            25 May 1928 - 21 Jun 1928
 2dLt   Lenard B. Cresswell          22 Jun 1928 - 30 Jun 1928
 Capt   Howard N. Stent               1 Jul 1928 - 15 Aug 1928
 LtCol  James T. Buttrick            16 Aug 1928 - 24 Jun 1929
 Maj    Nedom A. Eastman             25 Jun 1929 -  8 Aug 1929
 Maj    Marion B. Humphrey            9 Aug 1929 - 19 Aug 1929
 Capt   Samuel A. Woods, Jr.         20 Aug 1929 - 29 Aug 1929
 Maj    Marion B. Humphrey           30 Aug 1929 - 10 Sep 1929
 Maj    Nedom A. Eastman             11 Sep 1929 - 16 Sep 1929
 LtCol  Charles F. Williams          17 Sep 1929 - 30 Jun 1930
 LtCol  Andrew B. Drum                1 Jul 1930 -  9 Jul 1930


                                      39




 
                                  1st Marines

NOTE:  The regiment was redesignated by authority Article 5-41<4> Marine Corps 
Manual.

 LtCol  Andrew B. Drum              10 Jul 1930 - 31 Aug 1930
 Capt   Arthur Kingston              1 Sep 1930 - 21 Sep 1930
 Capt   Thomas F. Joyce             22 Sep 1930 - 23 Oct 1930
 LtCol  Andrew B. Drum              24 Oct 1930 - 13 Nov 1930
 Maj    Arthur Kingston             14 Nov 1930 - 26 Apr 1931
 LtCol  Edward W. Sturdevant        27 Apr 1931 -  9 Aug 1931
 Maj    Philip H. Torrey            10 Aug 1931 - 26 Aug 1931
 Maj    John Q. Adams               27 Aug 1931 -  1 Nov 1931

                            * * * * * * * * * *

             1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force

NOTE:  This unit was organized at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

 Col    David L. S. Brewster          1 Mar 1941 -  1 Apr 1941
 LtCol  James F. Moriarty             2 Apr 1941 - 28 May 1941
 Capt   George H. Brockway           29 May 1941 - 11 Jun 1941 
 LtCol  James F. Moriarty            12 Jun 1941 - 30 Jun 1941
 
                        1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force

 LtCol  James F. Moriarty             1 Jul 1941 - 22 Mar 1942
 LtCol  Julian N. Frisbie            23 Mar 1942 -  3 May 1942
*Col    Clifton B. Cates              4 May 1942 -  9 Feb 1943
 Col    William J. Whaling           10 Feb 1943 - 28 Feb 1944
 Col    Lewis B. Puller               1 Mar 1944 -  3 Nov 1944
 LtCol  Richard P. Ross, Jr.          4 Nov 1944 - 12 Dec 1944
 Col    Kenneth B. Chappell          13 Dec 1944 -  5 May 1945
 Col    Arthur T. Mason               6 May 1945 - 19 Sep 1946
 LtCol  James M. Ranck, Jr.          20 Sep 1946 -  7 Oct 1946
 Col    John E. Curry                 8 Oct 1946 - 19 May 1947

NOTE:  Effective 20 May 1947, the regiment was reorganized into two battalions 
with no regimental headquarters.

1st Battalion, 1st Marines,          2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 
1st Marine Division                  FMF, Western Pacific

 LtCol  John A. Burns                 Col  John E. Curry
   20 May 1947 - 26 Aug 1947            20 May 1947 - 26 Aug 1947
 Maj    Robert T. Knox                Col  George W. McHenry
   27 Aug 1947 - 31 Oct 1947            27 Aug 1941 - 31 Oct 1947


                                      40



                        1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force

NOTE:  The regiment was reorganized by redesignation of the 2d Battalion, 1st 
Marines, FMF, Western Pacific, 31 Oct 1947.

 Col    George W. McHenry             1 Nov 1947 - 17 Feb 1948
 Maj    Edwin H. Wheeler             18 Feb 1948 -  8 Mar 1948
 Col    George W. McHenry             9 Mar 1948 - 27 Apr 1948
 Col    Miles S. Newton              28 Apr 1948 - 14 Jun 1948
 LtCol  Harold Granger               15 Jun 1948 - 26 Jun 1948
 Col    Miles S. Newton              27 Jun 1948 - 24 Feb 1949

                       1st Marines, 1st Marine Division

 Col    Miles S. Newton               25 Feb 1949 - 13 Apr 1949
 LtCol  Thomas W. Brundage, Jr.       14 Apr 1949 - 12 Jun 1949
 Col    John A. White                 13 Jun 1949 - 30 Sep 1949

                            * * * * * * * * * *

                       1st Marines, 1st Marine Division

NOTE:  The regiment was reactivated by redesignation from the 2d Marines, 2d 
Marine Division, 4 Aug 1950.

 Col    Lewis B. Puller               5 Aug 1950 - 24 Jan 1951
 Col    Francis M. McAlister         25 Jan 1951 - 18 May 1951
 Col    Wilburt S. Brown             19 May 1951 - 17 Jul 1951
 Col    Thomas A. Wornham            18 Jul 1951 - 11 Oct 1951
 Col    Sidney S. Wade               12 Oct 1951 -  7 Apr 1952
 Col    Walter N. Flournoy            8 Apr 1952 - 24 Jul 1952
 Col    Walter P. Layer              25 Jul 1952 - 20 Nov 1952
 Col    Hewitt D. Adams              21 Nov 1952 - 30 Apr 1953
 Col    Wallace N. Nelson             1 May 1953 - 10 Oct 1953
 Col    Ormond R. Simpson            11 Oct 1953 - 15 Feb 1954
 Col    William K. Jones             16 Feb 1954 -  9 Jul 1954
 Col    Wilmer E. Barnes             10 Jul 1954 - 24 Jan 1955
 Col    Nelson K. Brown              25 Jan 1955 - 30 Sep 1955
 Col    Robert C. McGlashan           1 Oct 1955 -  1 May 1956
 Col    Edward W. Durant, Jr.         2 May 1956 -  1 Feb 1957
 Col    William A. Kengla             2 Feb 1957 - 11 Nov 1957
 Col    Charles L. Banks             12 Nov 1957 -  5 Jan 1959
 Col    Clarence R. Schwenke          6 Jan 1959 -  4 Jan 1960
 Col    Anthony Walker                5 Jan 1960 - 14 Nov 1960
 Col    Charles T. Hodges            15 Nov 1960 - 14 Nov 1961
 Col    Thomas T. Grady              15 Nov 1961 - 27 May 1962
 Col    Sidney J. Altman             28 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963
 Col    Donald M. Beck               16 Feb 1963 - 10 Jun 1963
 Col    Harold Wallace               11 Jun 1963 - 30 Sep 1963
 Col    Angus M. Fraser               1 Oct 1963 - 20 Apr 1964
 Col    Carl W. Hoffman              21 Apr 1964 - 28 Jun 1965
 Col    Bryon B. Mitchell            29 Jun 1965 -    Sep 1966
 Col    Donald L. Mallory               Sep 1966 - 28 Jan 1967


                                      41




 
 Col    Emil J. Radics               29 Jan 1967 - 13 Jul 1967
 Col    Herbert E. Ing               14 Jul 1967 - 

(*) Denotes those Commanding Officers of the 1st Marines later to become 
Commandant or the Marine Corps.


                                      42



                                  Appendix B

                    1ST MARINES MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

 Sgt    Harry Harvey                  16 Feb 1900 Benictican, P.I.
 Cpl    Edwin N. Appleton             20 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    James Burns                   20 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    Albert R. Campbell            21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    Charles R. Francis            21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    Thomas W. Kates               21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China
 Sgt    John M. Adams                 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Cpl    Harry C. Adriance             13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    James Cooney                  13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Sgt    Alexander J. Foley            13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Pvt    Clarence E. Mathias           13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Sgt    Clarence E. Sutton            13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China
 Drum   John A. Murphy                21 Jul -    Peking, China
                                      14 Aug 1900
 Pvt    Daniel J. Daly                14 Aug 1900 Peking, China
 Capt   Hiram I. Bearss               17 Nov 1901 Samar, P. I.
 Capt   David D. Porter               17 Nov 1901 Samar, P. I.
 Maj    Smedley D. Butler             17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti
 Pvt    Samuel Gross                  17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti
 Sgt    Ross L. Iams                  17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti
 Capt   Everett P. Pope            19-20 Sep 1944 Peleliu, Palaus I.
 Pfc    William A. Foster              2 May 1945 Okinawa
 Sgt    Elbert L. Kinser               4 May 1945 Okinawa
 Cpl    John P. Fardy                  7 May 1945 Okinawa
 Pvt    Dale M. Hansen                 7 May 1945 Okinawa
 Cpl    Louis J. Hauge, Jr.           14 May 1945 Okinawa
 Pfc    Walter C. Monegan, Jr.        17 Sep 1950 Korea
 Pfc    Stanley R. Christianson       29 Sep 1950 Korea
 1stLt  Henry A. Commiskey            29 Sep 1950 Korea
 Pfc    William B. Baugh              29 Nov 1950 Korea
 Maj    Reginald Meyers               29 Nov 1950 Korea
 Capt   Carl L. Sitter             29-30 Nov 1950 Korea
 TSgt   Harold E. Wilson           23-24 Apr 1951 Korea
 Cpl    Charles G. Abrell             10 Jun 1951 Korea
 Pfc    Edward Gomez                  14 Sep 1951 Korea
 Cpl    Joseph Vittori             15-16 Sep 1951 Korea


                                      43




 
                                  Appendix C

                            HONORS OF 1ST MARINES

                PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION WITH ONE SILVER STAR

Solomon Islands                       7 Aug 1942 -  9 Dec 1942
Palau Islands                        15 Sep 1942 - 29 Sep 1944
Okinawa                               1 Apr 1945 - 21 Jun 1945
Korea                                15 Sep 1950 - 11 Oct 1950
Korea                                27 Nov 1950 - 11 Dec 1950
Korea                                21 Apr 1951 - 26 Apr 1951
                                     16 May 1951 - 30 Jun 1951
                                     11 Sep 1951 - 25 Sep 1951

                            NAVY UNIT COMMENDATION

Korea                                11 Aug 1952 -  5 May 1953
                                      7 Jul 1953 - 27 Jul 1953
Vietnam                               8 Dec 1965 - 20 Dec 1965

               EXPEDITIONARY STREAMER WITH THREE BRONZE STARS

Philippine Islands                   17 Sep 1911 - 18 Nov 1911
Cuba                                 28 May 1912 -  5 Aug 1912
Haiti                                 7 Dec 1915 -  1 Jul 1916
Dominican Republic                    5 Dec 1916 - 31 Dec 1916
Cuba                                 21 Oct 1962 - 23 Oct 1962
                        
                         PHILIPPINE CAMPAIGN STREAMER

                          21 Apr 1899 -  4 Jul 1902

                         NICARAGUAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER
      
                           4 Sep 1912 - 22 Nov 1912 

                          MEXICAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER

                          22 Apr 1914 - 23 Apr 1914 

                          HAITIAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER

                          17 Aug 1915 - 6 Dec 1915
     
                         DOMINICAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER
 
                           1 Jul 1916 - 4 Dec 1916

                         VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR I
               
                          United States 1917 - 1918


                                      44



                        AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER

                                     1941

                     ASIATIC-PACIFIC CAMPAIGN STREAMER WITH
                       ONE SILVER STAR AND ONE BRONZE STAR

                            Guadalcanal Operation

Guadacanal-Tulagi Landings                      7 Aug 1942 -  9 Aug 1942
Capture and Defense of Guadalcanal             10 Aug 1942 - 22 Dec 1942

                         Eastern New Guinea Operation

Finschhafen Occupation                           1 Sep 1943 - 25 Dec 1943

                        Bismarck Archipelago Operation

Cape Gloucester, New Britain                   26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944

                      Western Caroline Islands Operation

Capture and Occupation of                      15 Sep 1944 - 2 Oct 1944
Southern Palau Islands

                           Okinawa Gunto Operation

Assault and Occupation or                       1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945
Okinawa Gunto

                        VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR II

                           7 Dec 1941 -31 Dec 1946

                NAVY OCCUPATION SERVICE STREAMER WITH ASIA CLASP

                           2 Sep 1945 - 26 Sep 1945

                            CHINA SERVICE STREAMER

                           30 Sep 1945 - 15 Apr 1946

                       NATIONAL DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER

                           27 Jun 1950 - 27 Jul 1954

                  KOREAN SERVICE STREAMER WITH TWO SILVER STARS

North Korean Aggression                        15 Sep 1950 -  2 Nov 1950
Inchon Landing                                 15 Sep 1950 - 17 Sep 1950
Communist China Aggression                      3 Nov 1950 - 24 Jan 1951
First United Nations Counter                   25 Jan 1951 - 21 Apr 1951
  Offensive


                                      45




 
Communist China Spring Offensive               22 Apr 1951 -  8 Jul 1951
United Nations Summer-Fall                      9 Jul 1951 - 27 Nov 1951
  Offensive
Second Korean Winter                           28 Nov 1951 - 30 Apr 1952
Korean Defense, Summer-Fall,                    1 May 1952 - 30 Nov 1952
  1952
Third Korean Winter                             1 Dec 1952 - 30 Apr 1953
Korea, Summer-Fall, 1953                        1 May 1953 - 27 Jul 1953

                      KOREAN PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION

Korea                                          15 Sep 1950 - 27 Sep 1950
Korea                                          26 Oct 1950 - 27 Jul 1953
                                                               

                     ARMED FORCES EXPEDITIONARY STREAMER

Cuba                                           24 Oct 1962 - 27 Jul 1953
                                                               
                 VIETNAM SERVICE STREAMER WITH 3 BRONZE STARS

                           Vietnam Defense Campaign

                           25 Aug 1965 - 24 Dec 1965

                     Vietnamese Counter-offensive Campaign

                           25 Dec 1965 - 30 June 1966

                              No Name Established

                            1 Jul 1966 - date to be announced


                                      46

   

Links

 

Contacting AfroCubaWeb

Electronic mail
acw_AT_afrocubaweb.com [replace _AT_ with @]
[history/_private/textbar.htm]
Copyright © 1997 AfroCubaWeb, S.A.