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LA GUERRA BIOLÓGICA DE EE.UU. CONTRA CUBA (I), AIN, 7/02

United States Rejects Biological Weapons Treaty, 7/25/01 

La guerra biológica de EE.UU. contra Cuba, 3/01

Not even the Bees
, Granma, 3/24/00


CIABASE on Cuba Biowar

Biowar History

Protest Note delivered by Cuba to the UN on US BioWar attack, 4/97

Map of 1996 attack in Matanzas Province

Links on Biowar against Cuba

General Links to Biowar

Bio-War against Cuba

In the post 9-11 world, we note that Cuba has hard won expertise in defending against biowar, as noted below, and in dealing with radiation poisoning, from its extensive work on the Chernobyl victims. Cuba has generously offered its expertise to the USA. This could be needed in the times to come...

From time to time since 1959 there have been reports of plagues spread by US and Cuban American forces in Cuba.  One of the most recent of these was the 1996 Thrips Palmi infestation in the Province of Matanzas, a cradle of African culture in Cuba.  If you read the protest note to the UN written by the Cubans, you can observe how the American government entangled itself in a web of contradictions.

The history of biowar attacks against Cuba is said to be well documented. This history will help us understand how the Cubans came to be "paranoid" and why they may be so concerned about their national security and prone to crackdown on contacts with foreigners....  And lest anyone think this is all unproven, salient points have been confessed to by participants in US courts!

If you have any contributions on this topics, please send them to us: info@afrofcubaweb.com.

LA GUERRA BIOLÓGICA DE EE.UU. CONTRA CUBA (I), AIN, 7/02

Las pruebas de una verdad

Por Juan Hermida

Ahora que tanto espacio dedican algunos medios de prensa para reproducir acusaciones de funcionarios del gobierno de Estados Unidos contra Cuba por supuesta producción de armas biológicas, es bueno reiterar que ese gobierno tan "democrático" es el que desde hace más de 40 años practica contra la Isla una guerra económica, el terrorismo y la agresión biológica.

Informes desclasificados de la Agencia Central de Inteligencia (CIA por sus siglas en inglés) prueban que en fecha tan temprana como 1962 pusieron en práctica acciones biológicas.

Según esas fuentes, en 1961-62, la CIA organizó la vasta Operación Mangoose (Mangosta), que incluía incapacitar a los trabajadores azucareros durante la cosecha, utilizando medios químicos para enfermarlos.

En 1972 fue introducido en Cuba el virus de la fiebre porcina, lo que obligó a sacrificar más de medio millón de cerdos; y, entre 1979 y 1981, cuatro plagas que afectaron a personas y cultivos: la conjuntivitis hemorrágica, el dengue, la roya de la caña de azúcar y el moho azul del tabaco.

Sólo en sus primeras semanas, el dengue hemorrágico afectó a 200 mil seres humanos en la Isla, de los cuales murieron 158, entre ellos 101 niños.

En el propio 1979, el diario The Washington Post informó que la CIA tenía un programa contra la agricultura cubana y que desde 1962, los especialistas del Pentágono fabricaban agentes biológicos para estos fines.

Ante un jurado norteamericano, Eduardo Arosena, líder del grupo terrorista Omega 7, reconoció en 1984 haber participado en una operación para introducir gérmenes como parte de la guerra biológica contra Cuba.

A fin de impedir acciones de este tipo, se encontraban en Estados Unidos los cinco cubanos condenados injustamente el pasado año en un proceso amañado y corrupto, silenciado a la opinión pública mundial y en el cual han sido violadas regulaciones constitucionales de ese gobierno.

La página más horrible de la guerra biológica fue la introducción del dengue hemorrágico. Entre el primero de junio y el 10 de octubre de 1981 se notificaron 344 mil 203 casos de dengue; pero de ellos más de 30 mil eran casos hemorrágicos y 10 mil cumplían todos los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para ser considerados fiebre hemorrágica y choque por dengue.

Pero no sólo se introdujo el virus, sino que se negó la posibilidad de adquirir en Estados Unidos el abate, producto químico para eliminar el agente transmisor, el mosquito Aedes aegypti. Hubo que desplazar aviones a Europa y Japón para adquirirlo.

La Demanda del Pueblo Cubano al gobierno de Estados Unidos por daños humanos, proceso judicial que culminó en una condena al país agresor en mayo del año 2000, señala: "Las investigaciones y los estudios minuciosos llevados a cabo condujeron a la evidencia de que la epidemia fue introducida deliberadamente en el territorio nacional por agentes al servicio del gobierno de Estados Unidos.

"Especialistas norteamericanos en guerra biológica habían sido los únicos en obtener una variedad de mosquito Aedes aegypti sensiblemente asociada a la transmisión del virus dos, (que fue el que entró a Cuba y no estaba circulando en ese momento en el mundo. NR) según informó el coronel Phillis Rossell, en el XIV Congreso Internacional del Océano Pacífico, efectuado en 1979, solo dos años antes de que se desatara la brutal epidemia en Cuba.

"Constituye un elemento significativo el hecho de que en 1975 el científico norteamericano Charles Henry Kalisher, en una visita a Cuba, se interesó y obtuvo información sobre la existencia de anticuerpos al dengue en la población cubana y la no existencia en la misma, por lo menos en 45 años, de anticuerpos del virus dos.

"En el juicio celebrado en 1984, en Estados Unidos, contra Eduardo Arosena, cabecilla de la organización terrorista Omega 7, este confesó paladinamente haber introducido gérmenes en Cuba y reconoció que la fiebre del dengue hemorrágico fue introducida en la Isla a través de grupos afines de origen cubano radicados en Estados Unidos." Estas son pruebas, y no mentiras como la del subsecretario del Departamento de Estado, John Bolton, al fantasear que La Habana produce armas biológicas.

LA GUERRA BIOLÓGICA DE EEUU CONTRA CUBA (II final)

Los ataques a la agricultura

Por Juan Hermida Especial para la AIN

 El gobierno de los Estados Unidos ha aplicado formas de guerra biológica contra los esfuerzos cubanos por garantizar la seguridad alimentaria de su población.

En cuanto se incrementaba una línea de producción agropecuaria, aparecía una enfermedad, una nueva plaga y los productores y científicos del país han estado durante más de 40 años enfrentando esta agresión.

Desde 1978 y hasta 1996 se detectaron cinco entidades exóticas: en 18 años, una cada mil 315 días. Desde 1997 hasta 1999 se detectaron ocho: una cada 137 días.

Esto trajo por consecuencia gastos para el enfrentamiento por dos mil 158 millones de dólares, con otros adicionales cada año en el orden de los 59 millones de dólares. de invertirse este dinero en el desarrollo de la agricultura u otros renglones económicos, ¿cuánto se habría hecho? Hay pruebas de estas acusaciones, y no especulaciones como las del señor Bolton al acusar a Cuba como productora de armas biológicas.

Están los casos de la broca del café, que apareció practicamente en el centro del macizo montañoso de la oriental Sierra Maestra; el ácaro del arroz, una plaga que no es ni del entorno y hallada en una finca donde se producía la semilla básica para el desarrollo de ese cultivo.

Uno de los más notorios fue el de el Thrips palmi. El 21 de octubre de 1996, a las 12:08 horas, una aeronave de fumigación modelo S2R, con matrícula N-3093M del registro de Aeronaves Civiles de Estados Unidos operada por el Departamento de Estado de ese país, volaba sobre tierras cubanas, de norte a sur, rociando de manera intermitente -unas siete veces- sustancias desconocidas.

Los hechos son detectados por los tripulantes del vuelo regular de Cubana de Aviación CU 710, que cubría el itinerario Habana-Las Tunas y sobrevolaba en ese momento el corredor aéreo Girón en la región occidental de Cuba.

El 18 de diciembre de ese año aparecen en la provincia de Matanzas los primeros indicios de la presencia de la plaga sobre cultivos de papa.

El Trips palmi fue detectado en Asia en 1925, por naturaleza es muy resistente a los insecticidas químicos, le favorecen las altas temperaturas y la sequía.

Por esas características, su rápida multiplicación y porque ocasiona en poco tiempo grandes daños en los cultivos, está en la lista de insectos aptos para ser utilizados como instrumentos de lucha biológica.

Aunque fue dirigida principalmente contra el cultivo de la papa,

también afectó sembradíos de frijol, pepino, pimiento, berenjena y habichuela, Era imposible la existencia del Thrips palmi con anterioridad, pues ya desde 1988 existía en Cuba un programa de defensa por los daños que causó en República Dominicana y se hacían encuestas dirigidas a localizarlo.

Si hubiera sido por distribución natural, era detectable porque no vuela a grandes distancias. Sin embargo, apareció en el centro de la provincia, por debajo del corredor aéreo donde se detectó la aeronave, lejos de las provincias orientales, que eran las cercanas a los lugares donde había aparecido antes: Haití y República Dominicana.

A finales de 1962 se produjo un primer ataque contra la avicultura cubana, con acelerado desarrollo en esos años, por medio de la enfermedad de Newcastle.

El primer brote aconteció en la occidental provincia de Pinar del Río después de haber utilizado una vacuna contra la viruela aviar.

Fue descubierto que la vacuna había sido contaminada con el virus del Newcastle en los Laboratorios de Productos Veterinarios en que se producía, lo cual fue corroborado en un juicio donde se determinó la responsabilidad individual en esa acción contrarrevolucionaria que produjo la muerte a más de un millón de aves y pérdidas por alrededor de tres millones y medio de pesos.

Posteriormente, en junio de 1971, se detectó el primer brote de Peste Porcina Africana, una enfermedad propia de África que no existía en ese momento en este hemisferio, y que vuelve a introducirse en 1980 en la oriental provincia de Guantánamo, con la incidencia de grandes perjuicios económicos.

Sobre ambos casos existe un amplio expediente que pone al descubierto la participación directa de la CIA y grupos contrarrevolucionarios radicados en Estados Unidos.

En agosto de 1981, en una empresa pecuaria de Placetas -región central de Cuba-, aparece la pseudodermatosis nodular bovina, que ocasionó inmensas pérdidas.

Un especialista francés en la materia declaró: "No me explico técnicamente cómo se pudo haber introducido la enfermedad en Cuba, ya que la vía fundamental de transmisión es por el contacto de animal afectado al animal susceptible". Evidentemente la enfermedad fue introducida.

La mamilitis ulcerativa en la ganadería vacuna en 1989, y en 1993 la enfermedad hemorrágica viral del conejo son otras agresiones biológicas contra programas cubanos para el desarrollo alimentario a los cuales se sumó en 1996, la varroasis, la enfermedad más grave de las abejas, aparecida donde estaba casi el 30 por ciento de la producción apícola del país. En todos esos casos está probada la aplicación de guerra biológica.

Con un historial tan sucio ¿qué moral tiene el gobierno norteamericano para acusar a la Mayor de las Antillas, sin una sola prueba ?

United States Rejects Biological Weapons Treaty, 7/25/01 

Geneva, July 25 (RHC)--The United States today refused to adopt a draft protocol enforcing a l972 international treaty prohibiting plans and production of biological weapons for 30 years. U.S. ambassador Donald Mahley made the announcement in Geneva, where the document has been under discussion since Monday. He claimed that Washington opposes the agreement because the verification protocol "places national security and confidential information at risk" and he flatly stated that the United States cannot support the text that is the result of six years of negotiations. The original 1972 Convention on Biological and Toxic Weapons, ratified by nearly 140 nations including the United States, lacks control mechanisms on its application. The discussions in Geneva centered on introducing the appropriate controls, including inspections of factories and laboratories and controls on the export of materials for civilian and military use. Barbara Rosenberg, president of a working group on biological weapons of the American Federation of Scientists, was an observer to the negotiations. She said that Washington's refusal to back the protocol is based on ideology, and charged that the United States, the world's only superpower, does not want its hands tied by any multilateral treaties, since it feels it has enough economic and military might to achieve what it wants without any type of limitations. The FAS scientist noted that U.S. biotechnology and pharmeuctical transnationals have been lobbying against the protocol claiming that the inspections could be used by other countries to steal trade secrets, while the European companies, many of them are subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, have made no such claims. Rosenberg dismissed the U.S. explanation, noting that the protocol offers more confidentiality than the Convention on Chemical Arms, which Washington ratified in l997. Many European Union diplomats share that view, commenting that the Bush administration appears bent on rescinding any multilateral cooperation that could prejudice its interests.

Protest Note from the Cuban side

THIS A NOTE VERBALE FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF CUBA TO THE UNITED NATIONS
ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL.

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY 29 APRIL 1997

Fifty-second session - Item 80 of the preliminary list:

CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION AND
STOCKPILING OF BACTERIOLOGICAL (BIOLOGICAL) AND TOXIN WEAPONS AND
ON THEIR DESTRUCTION.

Note verbale dated 28 April 1997 from the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General.

The Permanent Mission of Cuba to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Secretary-General and, with regard to item 80 of the preliminary list, has the honour to convey hereby a report on the appearance in Cuba of the Thrips palmi plague (see annex).

In this respect, the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the United Nations, following instructions from its Government, kindly
requests that the present letter and the attached report be circulated to all Member States as an official document of the
General Assembly.

Annex

Information about the appearance in Cuba of the Thrips palmi
plague.

I.- Description of the facts.

1- On 21 October 1996, at 10.08 hours, crew members of scheduled flight CU- 170 of Cubana de Aviacion (Cuban Airlines), on board a Fokker-27 aircraft, flying region of Cuba, noticed a single- engine airplane flying from north to south, at about 1, 000 feet (300 metres) above them, apparently spraying or sprinkling unknown substances - some seven times - in an intermittent manner.

2- At that very moment, Cubana de Aviacion Fokker aircraft was located 25 to 30 kilo metres south of Varadero, in Matanzas Province., flying at an altitude of 9, 000 feet and at a speed of 400 kilo metres per hour.

3- According to scheduled flights, objective radar control and recordings of radio conversations between the airplanes and
ground control when the south in a course perpendicular to the Cubana de Aviacion flight was a fumigation aircraft Model SAR, register N3093M, of the civilian aircraft registry of the United States of America, operated by the State Department of that country, as stated in the flight authorization requested to the Institute registry of civilian aircraft . The above-mentioned
airplane had taken off from Patrick United States Air Force Base, in Cocoa Beach in the state of Florida, bound for Grand Cayman.

4- The Cubana pilot immediately reported to flight control on the release of unknown substances, in the form of a white or greyish mist, by the SAR airplane. The Cuban air controller established communication with the United States aircraft and asked whether it was having any technical problem, to which the pilot's answer was "NO". He was also asked about the type of aircraft he was flying, answering that it was a single-engine AY-65. That conversation is recorded on tape.

5- On 18 December 1996, the first signs of the presence of a Thrips plague appeared in Matanzas Province, at potato plantations of the Diamant variety, sowed 38 days before on the "Lenin" State Horticultural Farm in Javelins Municipality.
Samples of these organism were sent to the Central Quarantine Laboratory of the National Pest Control Center.

6- On 26 December 1996, the Cuban ministry of Foreign Affairs presented a note of complaint to the United States Interest
Section in Havana regarding the incident that had occurred in the Giron corridor, urging the United States party to take appropriate measures aimed at the clarification of the event.

7- On 12 February 1997, the United States Interest Section in Havana handed over to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba a reply to that note, stating that on the day of the incident, the United states pilot had, during his flight, seen a Cuban commercial airplane flying below, and as he was nor certain of having seen, "following caution and safety procedures, and with the purpose of securing a positive visual contact, the pilot used the "smoke generator" of his aircraft, in order to indicate its location" adding that "the smoke vanished and no fluid was poured from the airplane".

8- On 14 February 1997, the Central Quarantine Laboratory confirmed that the insect examined was the Thrips palmi karay, exotic to Cuban territory until that moment.

9- The Thrips palmi is indigenous to Asia. Since 1985 it has scattered across certain Caribbean zones, including Haiti, the
Dominican Republic and Jamaica. It is a polyphagous phytophagan that infects practically all crops, weeds and ornamental plants. It is reported to be a vector of viruses such as that known as TSWV. It is an insect of difficult diagnosis, unknown to the majority of Cuban specialists. It is self-propagated within a field, and into neighbouring ones, disseminating mostly when
seedlings, fruits and vegetal material, including topsoils, are moved from one place to another. It also scatters by aerial means, particularly its larvae. It is resistant to temperature changes. Its reproductive cycle lasts between 15 and 21 days, depending on the host plant.

10- Taking into the levels of highest density of the insect population, it could be ascertained that the primary source of the outbreak was located on the above-mentioned "Lenin" State Horticultural Farm. Smaller outbreaks were pinpointed in fields close to the villages of Maximo Gomez and Bolondron, also in Matanzas Province, a few kilo metres away from the main source.

11- In the first half of January 1997, outbreaks of the same insect were spotted in municipalities south of Havana Province, bordering Matanzas, affecting corn, beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and other crops.

12- Once the insect was identified, the Government of Cuba adopted a programme of emergency measures to fight it, including chemical control, through the purchase of pesticides, which in spite of its high cost, have not achieved effective results.

13- At the end of March 1997, The Government of Cuba, complying with international regulations, informed the Secretary-General and the United Nations Center for Disarmament, about the presence of Thrips palmi karay in its territory, and notified this finding to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to which Cuba applied for technical and financial assistance to fight the pest.

14- At present, Thrips palmi is spread virtually throughout Matanzas and La Habana Provinces, in two municipalities of Cienfuegos Province, in some municipalities of Pinar del Rio Province and in the Island of Youth. Its presence has not been detected in the central and eastern provinces of the country.

II.- RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATIONS.

15- The SAR aircraft, register N3093M, is used by the State Department of the United States in the struggle against drug trafficking, to destroy crops. The aircraft utilizes two sprinkling systems: one for the use of aerosols and liquid particles and another for dropping solid particles. No smoke generator is known to be installed aboard this aircraft.

16- The specialists appointed by the Cuban party to clarify the event considered unlikely a voluntary or involuntary leakage of fuel or oil, which is confirmed by the answer given by the United States airplane pilot himself to the Cuban air controller.

17- The argument used by the United States party in its note of reply regarding the smoke release, appears, from the technical point of view, weak and in contradiction with the conversation held during the flight. On the other hand it is not a standard procedure established for this kind of situation. The pilot of the Cuban Airline Fokker asserts on the basis of his visual
observation and his previous experience as a pilot of fumigation airplane, that the release made by the United states aircraft was not of smoke but of a substance.

18- Bearing in mind the place where the unknown substance was released, it can be established that the most risky area for infection is a zone covering 15 to 20 kilometres to the west and 20 to 25 kilometres to the east of the Giron air corridor, although the whole territory of Mantanzas Province is considered a probable infected zone. These zones match those actually infected both by the primary and secondary outbreaks.

19- Considering the insect population found on 18 December 1996, at the main source of the outbreak, specialists of the Cuban National Pest Control Centre estimated the beginning of the plague to date back to three or four previous generations. Bearing in mind the reproductive cycle of this insect, the beginning of the infection can be ascertained as approximately 21
October 1996, which was precisely the date when the United States S2R aircraft flew over this point.

20- Mindful of the distribution of the agent in countries like Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica, it would be expected that any natural occurrence would be in the eastern region of Cuban territory, the closest to those countries. Its appearance more than 600 kilometres away from region is, therefore, odd and suspicious.

21- Although at first sight it could be expected that the height of the flight of the S2R aircraft is not the most appropriate for the dissemination of biological agents, information is available regarding experiments made by North Americans themselves in which that type of agent was dropped from even higher altitudes. On the other hand, the enduring features of the insect, mainly in its larva state, make its survival possible at these altitudes.

22- Because of its nature of being a polyphagous phycophagan that strikes and severely damages practically every crop, and is also resistant to a considerable variety of pesticides, the Thrips palmi can be considered ideal biological agents able to inflict
heavy damage on agricultural food crops. In a document entitled "Report of the Subgroup for Investigation of Claims of Use or Escape of Agents which Constitute Biological or Toxin Weapons", of 29 February 1996, prepared by the Federation of American Scientists, Thrips palmi are included among the invertebrate that could come within the purview of the Convention on Biological Weapons.

23- In this particular case, the behavior of the plague in Cuba shows a polyphagia bigger than the one described in the scientific literature.

III.- CONCLUSIONS.

24- The analysis of the facts and the results of the investigations allow us to relate, with a high degree of accuracy, the appearance of Thrips palmi in Mananas Province with the dropping, on 21 October 1996, of an unknown substance by an aircraft operated by the United States Department.

25- There is reliable evidence that Cuba has once again been the target of biological aggression.

Map of the attack

Thrips attack map


Links to other material on Biowar in Cuba

 

Is U.S. waging bio-war against Cuba? - Workers World
http://www.workers.org/ww/biowar.html

DISARMAMENT: Cuban Charge of US Biological Warfare to be Studied
http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/aug/cuba.html
by Gustavo Capdevila
GENEVA, Aug 27, 1997 (IPS) - Cuba finally met with success in its bid to get the signatories to the convention on biological weapons to study a complaint it filed against the United States for alleged biological warfare.

History of Plagues against Cuba
http://www.poptel.org.uk/cuba-solidarity/CubaSi-January/Bio.html

La guerra biológica de EE.UU. contra Cuba, 3/01

History of Plagues against Cuba
http://www.poptel.org.uk/cuba-solidarity/CubaSi-January/Bio.html

Biowar History Time Line
Allegations of BioWar as compiled by UK solidarity organization, Cuba Si

Biological war waged by the US against Cuba

--1962 A US intelligence agent is known to have given several thousand dollars to a Canadian to introduce a disease infecting Cuban sea-turtles.

--1965 A plastic balloon descends on a farm in Santiago de las Vegas. When it hits the ground it expels a white dust that spreads to cane plantation which is later destroyed.

--1968 A foreign specialist working for an international agency is expelled after he is confirmed to have introduced a virus affecting coffee crops.

--1970 The US is caught seeding clouds over Cuba in an attempt to affect the sugar harvest. The project was part of a larger research plan called "The Cooling" which was intended to devise ways of manipulating the weather for political reasons.

--1971 African swine fever is introduced. The Cubans claim that the container transporting the virus came from Fort Gullick, a US military base in the Panama Canal Zone. Those involved in this attack have since testified to their part. The entire pig population of Cuba had to be slaughtered.

--1977 Cane smut is detected in Pilón, eastern Cuba. The disease had never been known in Cuba until this date.

--1978: A previously unknown variety Blue mould hits the sugar crops causing losses of approximately 344 million pesos.

--1978: Sugar cane rust affects a new variety of cane imported from Barbados. As a result 1.35 million tonnes of sugar are
lost.

--1979-80 Two different strains of African swine fever are discovered emanating from distinct areas of contamination. 300,00 pigs are slaughtered.

--1981 A previously unknown Bovine skin disease erupts affecting young cows and bullocks throughout the island.

--1981 A sudden outbreak of haemorrhagic dengue fever affects 350,000 people. 158 people, including children, die from the disease. The disease is later discovered to be exactly the same strain of the disease which caused an outbreak in New Guinea in 1924 but no others in the world except the Cuban case. The outbreak had three initial breeding grounds in Cienfuegos and Camagüey, all very close to international air corridors. Just prior to the outbreak it was discovered that the entire personnel at the Guantanamo naval base had been vaccinated against dengue. As a result there was not a single case of the disease in the base.

--1981 Haemorraghic conjunctivitis caused by the Enterovirus 70 strain spreads throughout the island. The Pan American Health Organisation is baffled because this strain had never been seen in the entire hemisphere before.

--1982 The US magazine Covert Action, August 6, 1982, suggests the dengue outbreak might have been a CIA plot.

--1984 Eduardo Arocena, a counter-revolutionary of Cuban origin and head of the Omega-7 terrorist organisation, stands trial in the US accused of the murder of Felix Garcia Rodriguez, a Cuban diplomat to the UN. Arocena confesses to having introduced 'germs' into Cuba as part of the US biological war against Cuba. He affirms that the dengue outbreak was introduced by terrorist groups into the island.

--1984 An outbreak of dysentery causes the death of 18 children in Guantánamo province. Investigators pin down the start of the outbreak to two workers who had participated in a festive activity inside the Guantánamo naval base. The disease was again of a type previously unknown in Cuba.

--1985 An infectious bronchitis poultry virus seriously disrupts egg production.

--1989 Ulcerative mammillitis in dairy cattle caused by a herpes virus spreads throughout the island affecting milk yields.

--1990 Black sigatoka, infects banana plantations throughout the island. Once again the disease had been hitherto unknown on the island. The disease appeared precisely as Cuba began to put plans into action to start intensive banana production.

--1991 Acariasis disease which affects bees is discovered, just as Cuban honey starts to be exported.

--1991 30,000 tobacco seedlings are discovered to be 15 per cent infected with fusorio which once in the soil means tobacco production has to be halted for three years.

--1992 Black plant louse which carries a citrus disease known as tristeza (sadness) is discovered.

--1994 Citric sapper blight is found in Pinar del Rio and Camagüey.

--1993 122,135 rabbits have to be slaughtered after an outbreak of a viral disease.

--1995 February 10. A camera case in the luggage of a visiting US scientist is found to contain four small test tubes of a biological substance. On examination it is discovered to be the citric tristeza virus.

--1995 Coffee borer discovered in Granma province. Losses of 80 per cent were attributed to it and considerable resources had to be spent on containing it.

--1996 Varroasis, another bee disease is diagnosed in three apiaries in Matanzas. Previously unknown in Cuba, this disease is the worst of all affecting honey production.

--1996 Thrips Palmi attack in Matanzas by State Department plane.

from http://www.poptel.org.uk/cuba-solidarity/CubaSi-January/Bio.html


CIABASE on Biowar against Cuba

* CIABASE *
E-mail: Ralph McGehee, rmcgehee@igc.org
- Thursday, 5 February 1998 -

-----
_________________________________________________________________

BIO-CHEMICAL WAR ON CUBA
Information from CIABASE files on bio/chem war on Cuba
_________________________________________________________________

Ralph McGehee, CIABASE
Source: alt.politics.org.cia

*

BIOLOGICAL WAR

chemical war. covert action information bulletin (now covert
action quarterly) 17:2-31; 18:58,59; 21:29,30; 22:16, 35;
25::3,7,26. "germ warfare disinformation," 16:60,58; "the history
of U.S. bio-chemical killers," 17:5-7; "U.S. biological warfare:
the 1981 Cuba dengue epidemic" 17:28-31. in afghanistan 17:13,
17,28; in Cuba 17:28-31; in korea 17:6-7; in laos 17:12

Cuba. Details CIA efforts to avoid destroying offensive
biologicals ordered by pres. nixon. also cites article in the
1/9/77 issue of the Washington Post " CIA linked to 71 swine
virus in Cuba." BCAS v12, #4 1980 p11-17

Cuba, 69-70 a U.S. officer passed a vial of african swine
fever virus to a terrorist group. six weeks later Cuba suffered
the first outbreak of swine fever in the western hemisphere; pig
herds were decimated. richelson, j.t. (1985). the U.S.
intelligence community 231

Cuba, 71 anti-Castro group releases anti-swine virus in
Cuba and Cuban gvt forced to kill 500,000 pigs. CIA agents
delivered sealed container that contained virus to Cuban group in
ft. gurlick, panama canal zone. CIA paramilitary center helped
train members in pm ops. minnick, w. (1992). spies and
provacateurs 262

Cuba, 72-82 Cuban officials charge that the CIA infected
Cuban pigs with african swine fever in the early 70s and again in
the early 80s. also the us introduced mosquitos that carried
bleeding dengue into Cuba in 81. hundreds of thousands became ill
and 150 died. the nation 8/27/83 135

Cuba, 78-87 CIA contacted dr. eduardo sagaro gonzalez
while he taking a medical course in mexico in 78. sagaro traveled
to mozambique in 79 where he recruited and close to douglas james
smith, the cos in maputo. CIA wanted info on fidel's health and
info on pesticide reserves to combat the dengue epidemic. CIA
also had asked another agent many questions relating to bio and
chemical war. CIA convinced manufacturer of containers for
fumigating (dengue fever) mosquitoes to make them without a head
of fumigator - rendering them useless. ridenour, r. (1991). back
fire: the CIA's biggest burn 77

Cuba, 79-82 when CIA agent davidson left Cuba he
instructed officers bruce timpton and richard brennan to keep in
touch with agronomist lopez nunez. they asked for samples of
tobacco leaves. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest
burn 78

Cuba, 79 orlando argudin lopez, aka oscar aka rolando was
told by his CIA handler in paris in 79 that CIA was introducing
diseases to affect people and animals. ridenour, r. (1991). back
fire: the CIA's biggest burn 74

Cuba, 81 300,000 people had dengue fever. two years
earlier swine fever devastated the island nation. entire tobacco
crop attacked by mildew; sugar cane had fungus. Cuban double
agents received reporting requirements from CIA re those events.
top secret 0-88 9-11

Cuba, 81 dengue fever type 2 broke out in Cuba 2 months
after CIA query re topic to Cuban double agent maria
santiesteban. she worked with dse for 11 years and recruited her
husband, jose alberto puig aka abelardo. ridenour, r. (1991).
back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 71

Cuba, 93 Cuba said an epidemic affecting eyesight - optic
neuritis - may have been deliberately introduced from abroad.
washington times 5/1/93 a2

Cuba, 95-97 Cuba showed a u.n. meeting against biological
weapons, pictures of a U.S. op to plague Cuba with a crop-eating
pest and called for an international investigation. it is the
first time the biological weapons convention is dealing with a
complaint under a 1991 provision that lets a nation that believes
it has come under biological attack seek an investigation. a u.n.
meeting on Cuba's charges ended inconclusively in geneva. in
talks held under a cold war-era treaty which bans biological
weapons but lacks a verification mechanism, havana failed to get
the investigation it wanted and washington was unable to close
the matter. johnpike fas.org 9/2/97

Cuba, 96-97 Cuba said the us government unleashed biowar
against Cuba. granma newspaper provided a map of us state
department aircraft's trajectory over Cuba last october 21st, the
date of the first appearance of the thrips palmi insect plague in
western and central Cuba, and the dates of Cuba's official note
of protest to the us interests section in havana as well as the
response to that protest. on 2/12/97 -- the us interests section
said the sr2 aircraft, turned on its smoke generator to warn a
nearby Cuban commercial airliner of its presence in the region.
the sr2 used by the state department for the fumigation of drug
crops is known to have two dispersion systems: one for aerosols
and liquid particles, and one for solid particles, but is not
known to carry a smoke generator. the Cuban pilot who spotted the
aircraft, and who has experience in fumigation said that the us
aircraft did not launch smoke, but rather a substance. rhc
radiohc.org 5/7/97

Cuba, 96 note 4/28/97 from Cuba to u.n. secretary-general
re the thrips palmi plague. on 10/21/96, at 10.08 hours, crew
members of (Cuban airlines), saw a single-engine airplane
apparently spraying or sprinkling unknown substances - some seven
times. located 25 to 30 kilo metres south of varadero. the flight
was a fumigation aircraft model sar, register n3093m, operated by
the state department. the airplane had taken off from patrick air
force base, bound for grand cayman. the Cubana pilot reported to
flight control the release of unknown substances, in the form of
a white or greyish mist, by the sar airplane. 12/18/96, the first
signs of thrips plague appeared in matanzas province. after a
protest note on 2/12/97, the us interest section in havana,
stated, the pilot had, during his flight, seen a Cuban commercial
airplane flying below, and as he was not certain of having seen,
"following caution and safety procedures," and with the purpose
of securing a positive visual contact, the pilot used the "smoke
generator" of his aircraft, in order to "indicate its location"
adding that "the smoke vanished and no fluid was poured from the
airplane." the sar aircraft, register n3093m, is used by the
state department in the struggle against drug trafficking, to
destroy crops. the aircraft utilizes two sprinkling systems: one
for the use of aerosols and liquid particles and another for
dropping solid particles. the investigations show, the appearance
of thrips palmi in mananas province with the dropping, on
10/21/96, of an unknown substance. protest note 6/29/93

Cuba, switzerland, 96-97 - Cuba charged the U.S. sprayed
it with a hungry insect that is devouring its crops. at a meeting
here of the 138 nations that signed the 1972 convention on
biological weapons, Cuba demanded an investigation into claim
that a U.S. state dept plane spewed an agent known as thrips
palmi over Cuba last october. charges provide a test for the
accord, intended to ban germ warfare. accord now includes no
provisions for verification or enforcement. now negotiators
trying to add powers that were built into the post-cold war
treaties to ban chemical weapons and nuclear test explosions. the
tiny insect, which severely damages practically every crop,
started showing up in potato plantations about two months after
the october flyover. washington post 8/26/97 a12

Cuba, switzerland, 97 Cuban accuses U.S. government
crop-dusting plane for spraying a substance over Cuba in october
96 that led to the appearance in december of a crop pest. the
potato bug was dropped on 10/21/96 by an s2r crop-dusting plane
operated by the state department -- who says the plane overflew
Cuba, but emitted only smoke. washington times 8/26/97 a10

Cuba, 61 CIA used weather modification and swine fever
virus against Cuba. richelson, j.t. (1985). the U.S. intelligence
community 231

Cuba, 79-81 Castro said CIA probably behind hemorrhagic
dengue where in 7 weeks 113 people died and 300,000 infected. he
raised questions about african swine fever, sugar cane rust and
blue mold on tobacco that hit Cuba beginning 79 counterspy 2/82
6-8

Cuba, 81 various evidence including testimony suggests
that CIA thru Cuban exile terrorist org omega 7 spread epidemic
of dengue fever. covert action information bulletin (now covert
action quarterly) fall 84 22 & summer 82 28-31

Cuba, 61-81 Cuban sugar contaminated, infected turkeys
virus, 8000 died. 71 created african swine fever, 500,000 pigs
killed. 81 epidemic dengue fever 300,000 cases reported. blum, w.
(1986). the CIA a forgotten history 211

Cuba, plans against Cuba's sugar crop. ranelagh, j. (1986).
the agency 386

Cuba, 71 U.S. intel source said the CIA gave an
anti-Castro group a container filled with african swine fever
virus which caused the slaughter of 500,000 pigs to prevent a
nationwide epidemic. wp 1/9/77, first principles 2/77 p12

CHEMICAL WAR

94-95 in 94 at maximum biosafety level 4 at the U.S. army
medical research institute of infectious diseases, the fort
detrick "biological weapons" center, a controlled experiment was
run with what is probably the world's most deadly organism: elgon
filoviruses. these fragile tapes of rna in thin, protein-walled
molecular tubes a few microns long share seven common proteins,
and the army experiment showed that the most fulminating,
hemorrhagic subtype, ebola zaire could pass airborne from one
monkey to another. in biological warfare lingo, ebola zaire
filovirus is a true "slate-wiper:" in a modern hospital, it will
kill nine out of 10 infected persons in 24 to 48 hours. there are
no known antibodies or counter-measures and its molecular
structure is indistinguishable from other filoviruses, the least
"fulminating" of which kills one in four persons in 24 to 48
hours. after a few days or weeks of incubation in a mammal host,
a filovirus multiples inordinately, congealing blood platelets
and softening organ tissue into jelly. first, capillaries, then
larger blood vessels fill, swell and burst, leaving the host
bleeding massively internally and also externally through all
orifices. intelligence - a computerized intelligence newsletter
published in france 2/27/95 2 biological war. covert action
information bulletin (now covert action quarterly) 17:2-31;
18:58,59; 21:29,30; 22:16, 35; 25::3,7,26. "germ warfare
disinformation," 16:60,58; "the history of U.S. bio-chemical
killers," 17:5-7; "U.S. biological warfare: the 1981 Cuba dengue
epidemic" 17:28-31. in afghanistan 17:13, 17,28; in Cuba
17:28-31; in korea 17:6-7; in laos 17:12

Cuba, 61-62 op mongoose begun in 11/61 to overthrow
Castro. a wide range of ops from intel and propaganda, to
sabotage of factories and installations, bombing power lines,
spreading chemicals on sugar fields to sicken cane cutters, and
several plots to murder Castro. watson, b., watson, s. & hopple,
g. (1990). united states intelligence: an encyclopedia 364

Cuba, 61-81 Cuban sugar contaminated, infected Cubans
turkeys virus, 8000 died. 71 created african swine fever, 500,000
pigs killed. 81 epidemic dengue fever 300,000 cases reported.
blum, w. (1986). the CIA a forgotten history 211

Cuba, 66-87 in july 87 Cuban gvt revealed the identities
of 26 Cubans and one italian who had served as double agents for
the Cuban gvt while ostensibly working for the CIA (double
agents). Cuban tv ran an 11-part series on the 26. series exposed
CIA attempts to spread dengue fever and crop diseases and efforts
to assassinate Castro. nacla (magazine re latin america) 9/89 6

Cuba, 69-70 CIA used weather modification to ravage
Cuba's sugar crop. it seeded rain clouds in non-agricultural
areas that left cane fields arid. blum, w. (1986). the CIA a
forgotten history 211

Cuba, 69-70 CIA apparently used weather modification to
destabilize Cuba's food crop and export income. planes from china
lake naval weapons center in california overflew Cuba seeding
rain clouds that precipitated torrential rains over
nonagricultural areas and left cane fields dry. CIA used
international research and technology corporation in this op as
reported by one of institutions leaders, lowell ponte in nyt,
6/27/76. dutch scientists jaap van ginneken supported ponte's
claim. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 73

Cuba, 69-70 planes from the china lake naval weapons
center in california overflew Cuba, seeding rain clouds with
crystals that precipitated torrential rains over nonagricultural
areas and left the cane fields arid. richelson, j.t. (1985). the
U.S. intelligence community 231

Cuba, 71-83 sudden outbreaks of sogata rice blight in 71,
african swine fever in 71 and 79, sugar cane rust and smut in
78-79, blue tobacco mold in 79, newcastle disease in 82, and
coffee smut in 83 caused serious damage to Cuban economy.
ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 73

Cuba, 80-84 eduardo victor arrocena perez, head of
CIA-financed group, omega-7, tried for assassinating felix
garcia, a Cuban diplomat in new york on 9/11/80. arrocena was a
CIA agent. during trial he testified CIA had given him chemicals
to produce sickness in Cuba. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the
CIA's biggest burn 78-9

Cuba, vietnam, 57-97 book, che guevara: a revolutionary
life, by jon lee anderson, reviewd by jane franklin. discusses
lansdale in 1991 who had just returned from vietnam, where
operation hades, a massive chemical warfare program, had just
been secretly launched. the nation 5/19/97 27-8

* * *

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****** A-Infos News Service *****

Cuba: Ni las abejas.... Not even the bees

Cuba: Ni las abejas.... Not even the bees
by Mireya Castañeda
(Granma International staff writer, 3/24?)

AFTER expert witnesses had moved through the dry scientific vocabulary and demonstrated the scope of the biological aggression which attacked the Cuban agricultural sector in particular, only one graphic expression remained: not even the busy bees were safe. The evidence was presented during the testimony of expert witnesses on the afternoon of March 7, related to the Cuban people’s lawsuit for economic damages against the U.S. government.

Drs. Emerio Serrano, Manuel Toledo and Carlos Delgado, who work at the Institute of Veterinary Medicine, presented a report on the damage to animals due to artificially introduced diseases. They explained that the International Epizootiology Office, the

central agency in this context, has identified, in two lists, the principal diseases affecting animals. List A includes 15 serious diseases, of which Cuba is free of 14 (the other one is swine fever and is under control through immunizations); and List B, with another 90 diseases, of which the island is exempt from 61. The scientists made extensive reference to, and demonstrated the artificial introduction of : African swine fever (1971 and 1979);

bovine nodular pseudodermatitis (1981); Newcastleís disease, which affects poultry (1985); ulcerative mammillitis in milk cows (1989); varroasis, a pathology which affects bees (1991); and hemorrhagic rabbit disease (1993).

The report relates the research undertaken in all those cases as to potential sources of infection and determines that their introduction was artificial; in other words, it was biological warfare.

It notes how the diseases coincide with areas of economic growth, with the objectiveóas the lawsuit affirmsóof sabotaging food sources, blocking income derived from exports and occasioning considerable losses.

For example, the first outbreak of African swine fever was detected in Havana province, where the country's principal breeding centers are located. This led to the extermination of more than 45,000 hogs, the slaughter of a further 400,000 which could be utilized for industrial purposes, and economic losses of over $10 million USD. Subsequently, due to a modified strain of the same virus (the animals had been immunized against the classic variety), more than 900,000 hogs were lost in 1980.

Diseases affecting milk cows were detected in Villa Clara and Granma provinces, and the rabbit disease in City of Havana, Havana and Matanzas provinces, with more than 100,000 animal deaths and $2 million USD in economic losses, without counting the effects on research centers which use rabbits for experimental purposes.

It was also demonstrated that varroasis, a parasitic bee disease, was introduced in Matanzas in a criminal form, since its natural propagation would have followed predominant winds (from east to west), and points of infection appeared in an isolated manner, principally in that province, Havana and City of Havana, which have 26% of their honey production destined for exportation. Nevertheless, in less than three years, 80% of the country was affected.

The judges also heard the ruling of expert witnesses Antonia Prieto, Raquel Silveira and Maria del Carmen Rodriguez, head researchers at the Fishing Research Center, who covered ulcerative disease in trout, which commenced in the Zaza reservoir, in Sancti Spiritus province, and extended throughout the country, and worse, to other species like tilapia, being developed to feed the population.

One case of biological aggression claimed at the time was the introduction of the Thrips palmi karmy insect. Evidence was given by witness Tomas Torralbas, co-pilot of Cubana Airlinesí Havana- Las Tunas flight who, on October 21, 1996, saw a U.S. aircraft spraying a liquid substance along the Giron corridor, south of Varadero, six or seven times.

Since its appearance, Thrips palmi has affected 17 crops in the contaminated areas, including potatoes, beans, peppers, cucumber and squash. Overall, the material damage is estimated at tens of thousands of dollars and, according to Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment Rosa Elena Simeon, who is also a doctor and virologist, the consequent human suffering is impossible to quantify.

Journal rebuts Castro charge of U.S. biological warfare, 10/99
Interesting rebutal based on the work of a microbiologist who was part of a team that forced the destruction of a vaccine lab in Iraq, leading to the resumption of widespread foot and mouth disease

Juan O. Tamayo. Published Thursday, October 14, 1999, in the Miami Herald

They have long been a staple of the Cuba-U.S. conflict: Havana's allegations that Washington used biological weapons to attack the island's people, animals and crops.

But an exhaustive study by an independent U.S. researcher has concluded that the outbreaks of disease were almost certainly the work of nature or bad decisions by President Fidel Castro -- not the CIA.

The charges were so clearly unfounded that even Cuba's own scientists did not endorse them, wrote Raymond Zilinskas, senior scientist in residence at the Washington-based Monterey Institute for International Studies.

Yet Havana has made the charge so often that it may be weakening efforts to control the proliferation of biological weapons around the world, Zilinskas wrote in the quarterly, Critical Reviews in Microbiology.

The 60-year-old microbiologist was a member of two U.N. inspection missions sent to Iraq in 1994 in the wake of the Gulf War.

For the rest of this article, see
http://64.21.33.164/CNews/y99/oct99/14e7.htm

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